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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 596_(nuclear_test)Project 596 - Wikipedia

    Project 596. Project 596, ( Miss Qiu ( Chinese: 邱小姐, Qiū Xiǎojiě) as code word, Chic-1 by the US intelligence agencies) was the first nuclear weapons test conducted by the People's Republic of China, detonated on 16 October 1964, at the Lop Nur test site. It was a uranium-235 implosion fission device made from weapons-grade uranium ( U ...

  2. The first Chinese test had a yield of 22 kilotons. On 16 October 1964, the People’s Republic of China conducted its first nuclear test, making it the fifth nuclear-armed state after the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain and France. China had initiated its nuclear weapons programme in the mid-1950s, after the Korean war.

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  4. V. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) conducted its sixth (and most recent to date) nuclear test on 3 September 2017, stating it had tested a thermonuclear weapon (hydrogen bomb). The United States Geological Survey reported an earthquake of 6.3-magnitude not far from North Korea's Punggye-ri nuclear test site.

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    • 12:00:01, 3 September 2017 UTC+08:30 (03:30:01 UTC)
    • United States
    • Russia
    • United Kingdom
    • France
    • China
    • India
    • Pakistan
    • North Korea

    First nuclear test: July 16, 1945 Most recent nuclear test: Sept. 23, 1992 Total tests: 1,030 (815 underground) The United States has conducted more tests than the rest of the world, and was the first and only country to use a nuclear weapon in wartime. The U.S. has signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, but it has not yet been ratified by the Senate.

    First nuclear test: Aug. 29, 1949 Most recent nuclear test: Oct. 24, 1990 Total tests: 715 (496 underground) Russia was the second nation in the world to conduct nuclear tests.

    First nuclear test: Oct. 3, 1952 Most recent nuclear test: Nov. 26, 1991 Total tests: 45 (24 underground) Britain tested its first nuclear weapon on Monte Bello Islands, Australia. Atmospheric tests were carried out there until 1956. Britain has ratified the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

    First nuclear test: Feb. 13, 1960 Most recent nuclear test: Jan. 27, 1996 Total tests: 210 (160 underground) France conducted six controversial tests as recently as 1995-1996.

    First nuclear test: Oct. 16, 1964 Most recent nuclear test: July 29, 1996 Total tests: 43 (22 underground) China is widely thought to be helping Pakistan with its nuclear efforts.

    First nuclear test: May 18, 1974 Most recent nuclear test: May 13, 1998 Total tests: 7 In 1966, India declared it could produce nuclear weapons within 18 months. Eight years later, India tested a device of up to 15 kilotons and called the test a "peaceful nuclear explosion." In May 1998, India stunned the world when it conducted six underground nuclear tests in Pokharan, Rajasthan, and declared itself a nuclear state.

    First nuclear test: May 28, 1998 Most recent nuclear test: May 30, 1998 Total tests: 6 In 1972, following its third war with India, Pakistan secretly decided to start a nuclear weapons program to match India's developing capability. Pakistan responded to India's nuclear tests in 1998 by announcing it exploded six underground devices in the Chagai region (close to its border with Iran).

    First nuclear test: Oct. 9, 2006 Most recent nuclear test: Sept. 3, 2017. Total tests: 3 On October 9, 2006 North Korea announced they had conducted a nuclear test. It is assumed this test was actually a fizzle. A second test was conducted on May 25, 2009. This test appeared to be successful. A third test was conducted on February 12, 2013.

    • Types of Nuclear Tests
    • Nuclear Testing 1945–2009
    • Breaking The de Facto Moratorium
    • Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Nuclear explosions have been detonated in all environments: above ground, underground and underwater. Bombs have been detonated on top of towers, onboard barges, suspended from balloons, on the earth's surface, underwater to depths of 600m, underground to depths of more than 2,400m and in horizontal tunnels. Test bombs have been dropped by aircraft and fired by rockets up to 200 miles into the atmosphere.

    The beginning of the nuclear era

    The United States launched the Nuclear Age in the pre-dawn hours of 16 July 1945 when it detonated a 20-kiloton atomic bomb code-named ”Trinity“ at Alamogordo, New Mexico. While the Alamogordo test demonstrated many of the explosion's effects, it failed to provide a meaningful comprehension of radioactive nuclear fallout, which was not well understood by project scientists until years later. The United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan towards the end of World War II: one called “Littl...

    From “hot war” to Cold War

    No sooner was World War II brought to a close in August 1945 than an all-out technical-industrial nuclear weapons race ensued between the two newly emerging superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. Between 1946 and 1949, the United States conducted an additional six tests. Then on 29 August 1949, the Soviet Union tested its first atomic bomb, “Joe 1”. This test marked the beginning of the “Cold War” nuclear arms race between the two superpowers. At the outset, neither the United S...

    The first hydrogen bomb

    On 1 November 1952 the United States became the first country to test a hydrogen bomb. The Castle Bravo test on 1 March 1954 yielded 15 megatons and was the largest nuclear weapon ever detonated by the United States. India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was the first statesman to call for a “stand still” agreement on nuclear testing on 2 April, 1954. However, this did little to stop the extensive nuclear testing that characterized the following 35 years, not subsiding until the end of the...

    Ten nuclear tests were conducted between 1998 and 2017: two by India and two by Pakistan in 1998 and six by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) in 2006, 2009, 2013, two in 2016, and in 2017, thus breaking the de facto moratorium that the CTBT had established. India conducted two underground nuclear tests, code-named “Shakti (Power) ‘98”, on 11 and 13 May 1998 at its Pokhran underground testing site. In contrast to India’s initial nuclear test in 1974, this time there were no claims that these were “peaceful tests”. On the contrary, government officials were quick to emphasize the military nature of the explosions. A scant two weeks later, Pakistan reacted, conducting two underground nuclear tests at its Ras Koh range. Both India and Pakistan immediately moved to announce unilateral moratoriums on nuclear testing and have conducted no nuclear tests since 1998. To read more about the 1998 tests conducted by India and Pakistan, see The Treaty: History. The announced nuclea...

    The Treaty

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty bans nuclear testing everywhere on the planet — surface, atmosphere, underwater and underground. The Treaty takes on significance as it also aims to obstruct the development of nuclear weapons: both the initial development of nuclear weapons as well as their substantial improvement (e.g. the advent of thermonuclear weapons) necessitate real nuclear testing. The CTBT makes it almost impossible for countries that do not yet have nuclear weapons to devel...

    The Treaty has yet to enter into force

    All 44 States specifically listed in the Treaty — those with nuclear technology capabilities at the time of the final Treaty negotiations in 1996 — must sign and ratify before the CTBT can enter into force. Of these, eight are still missing: China, DPRK, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Pakistan and the USA. DPRK, India and Pakistan have yet to sign the CTBT. Otherwise, as of July 2019, 184 countries have signed, of which 168 have ratified the Treaty.

    The Treaty Organization

    Since the Treaty is not yet in force, the Organization is called the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organization, or CTBTO. It was founded in 1996, with approximately 260 staff from most of the CTBTO’s 184 Member States. It is headed by the Executive Secretary, Lassina Zerbo (Burkina Faso). The CTBTO’s main tasks are the promotion of the Treaty and the build-up of the verification regime so that it is operational when the Treaty enters into force.

    • Types
    • Purpose
    • Alternatives to Full-Scale Testing
    • History
    • Nuclear Testing by Country
    • Treaties Against Testing
    • Compensation For Victims
    • Milestone Nuclear Explosions
    • External Links

    Nuclear weapons tests have historically been divided into four categories reflecting the medium or location of the test. 1. Atmospheric testing designates explosions that take place in the atmosphere. Generally these have occurred as devices detonated on towers, balloons, barges, islands, or dropped from airplanes, and also those only buried far enough to intentionally create a surface-breaking crater. The United States, the Soviet Union, and China have all conducted tests involving explosions of missile-launched bombs (See List of nuclear weapons tests#Tests of live warheads on rockets). Nuclear explosions close enough to the ground to draw dirt and debris into their mushroom cloud can generate large amounts of nuclear fallout due to irradiation of the debris. This definition of atmospheric is used in the Limited Test Ban Treaty, which banned this class of testing along with exoatmospheric and underwater. 2. Underground testing refers to nuclear tests conducted under the surface of...

    Separately from these designations, nuclear tests are also often categorized by the purpose of the test itself. 1. Weapons-relatedtests are designed to garner information about how (and if) the weapons themselves work. Some serve to develop and validate a specific weapon type. Others test experimental concepts or are physics experiments meant to gain fundamental knowledge of the processes and materials involved in nuclear detonations. 2. Weapons effectstests are designed to gain information about the effects of the weapons on structures, equipment, organisms and the environment. They are mainly used to assess and improve survivability to nuclear explosions in civilian and military contexts, tailor weapons to their targets, and develop the tactics of nuclear warfare. 3. Safety experimentsare designed to study the behavior of weapons in simulated accident scenarios. In particular, they are used to verify that a (significant) nuclear detonation cannot happen by accident. They include o...

    Hydronuclear testsstudy nuclear materials under the conditions of explosive shock compression. They can create subcritical conditions, or supercritical conditions with yields ranging from negligible all the way up to a substantial fraction of full weapon yield. Critical mass experiments determine the quantity of fissile material required for criticality with a variety of fissile material compositions, densities, shapes, and reflectors. They can be subcritical or supercritical, in which case significant radiation fluxes can be produced. This type of test has resulted in several criticality accidents. Subcritical (or cold) tests are any type of tests involving nuclear materials and possibly high-explosives (like those mentioned above) that purposely result in no yield. The name refers to the lack of creation of a critical mass of fissile material. They are the only type of tests allowed under the interpretation of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty tacitly agreed to by the majo...

    The first atomic weapons test was conducted near Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945, during the Manhattan Project, and given the codename "Trinity". The test was originally to confirm that the implosion-type nuclear weapon design was feasible, and to give an idea of what the actual size and effects of a nuclear explosion would be before they were used in combat against Japan. While the test gave a good approximation of many of the explosion's effects, it did not give an appreciable understanding of nuclear fallout, which was not well understood by the project scientists until well after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The United States conducted six atomic tests before the Soviet Union developed their first atomic bomb (RDS-1) and tested it on August 29, 1949. Neither country had very many atomic weapons to spare at first, and so testing was relatively infrequent (when the U.S. used two weapons for Operation Crossroads in 1946, they were detonating over 20% of t...

    The nuclear powers have conducted more than 2,000 nuclear test explosions (numbers are approximate, as some test results have been disputed): 1. United States: 1,054 tests by official count (involving at least 1,149 devices). 219 were atmospheric tests as defined by the CTBT. These tests include 904 at the Nevada Test Site, 106 at the Pacific Proving Grounds and other locations in the Pacific, 3 in the South Atlantic Ocean, and 17 other tests taking place in Amchitka Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, New Mexico and Nevada outside the NNSS (see Nuclear weapons and the United States for details). 24 tests are classified as British tests held at the NTS. There were 35 Plowshare detonations and 7 Vela Uniform tests; 88 tests were safety experiments and 4 were transportation/storage tests. Motion pictures were made of the explosions, later used to validate computer simulation predictions of explosions. United States' table data. 2. Soviet Union: 715 tests (involving 969 devices) by official...

    There are many existing anti-nuclear explosion treaties, notably the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. These treaties were proposed in response to growing international concerns about environmental damage among other risks. Nuclear testing involving humans also contributed to the formation of these treaties. Examples can be seen in the following articles: 1. Desert Rock exercises 2. Totskoye range nuclear tests The Partial Nuclear Test Ban treaty makes it illegal to detonate any nuclear explosion anywhere except underground, in order to reduce atmospheric fallout. Most countries have signed and ratified the Partial Nuclear Test Ban, which went into effect in October 1963. Of the nuclear states, France, China, and North Korea have never signed the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all nuclear explosions everywhere, including underground. For that purpose, the Preparatory Commission...

    Over 500 atmospheric nuclear weapons tests were conducted at various sites around the world from 1945 to 1980. As public awareness and concern mounted over the possible health hazards associated with exposure to the nuclear fallout, various studies were done to assess the extent of the hazard. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/ National Cancer Institute study claims that nuclear fallout might have led to approximately 11,000 excess deaths, most caused by thyroid cancer linked to exposure to iodine-131. 1. United States: Prior to March 2009, the U.S. was the only nation to compensate nuclear test victims. Since the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, more than $1.38 billion in compensation has been approved. The money is going to people who took part in the tests, notably at the Nevada Test Site, and to others exposed to the radiation. 2. France: In March 2009, the French Government offered to compensate victims for the first time and legislation is being drafted...

    The following list is of milestone nuclear explosions. In addition to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the first nuclear test of a given weapon type for a country is included, as well as tests that were otherwise notable (such as the largest test ever). All yields (explosive power) are given in their estimated energy equivalents in kilotons of TNT (see TNT equivalent). Putative tests (like Vela Incident) have not been included. Note 1. "Staged" refers to whether it was a "true" thermonuclear weapon of the so-called Teller–Ulam configuration or simply a form of a boosted fission weapon. For a more complete list of nuclear test series, see List of nuclear tests. Some exact yield estimates, such as that of the Tsar Bombaand the tests by India and Pakistan in 1998, are somewhat contested among specialists.