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  1. › wiki › ConquistadorConquistador - Wikipedia

    5 days ago · The most famous of these dogs of war was a mascot of Ponce de Leon called Becerrillo, the first European dog known to reach North America; [citation needed] another famous dog called Leoncico, the son of Becerillo, and the first European dog known to see the Pacific Ocean, was a mascot of Vasco Núñez de Balboa and accompanied him on several ...

    • Nahuatl
    • Script
    • Moctezuma IMoctezuma IICuitláhuacCuauhtémoc
  2. 5 days ago · George Herbert Walker Bush was born in Milton, Massachusetts on June 12, 1924. He was the second son of Prescott Bush and Dorothy (Walker) Bush. His paternal grandfather, Samuel P. Bush, worked as an executive for a railroad parts company in Columbus, Ohio, while his maternal grandfather and namesake, George Herbert Walker, led Wall Street investment bank W. A. Harriman & Co. Walker was known ...

  3. 5 days ago · Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in the western United States, largely in the northwest corner of Wyoming and extending into Montana and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872.

    • 2,219,791 acres (8,983.18 km²)
    • 3,806,306 (in 2020)
  4. 5 days ago · Terracotta figurines indicate the yoking of zebu oxen for pulling a cart and the presence of the chicken, a domesticated jungle fowl. The Indus Valley Civilisation ( IVC ), also known as the Indus Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form from ...

  5. › wiki › Honey_beeHoney bee - Wikipedia

    • Etymology and Name
    • Origin, Systematics, and Distribution
    • Living and Fossil Honey Bees
    • Life Cycle
    • Pollination
    • Nutrition
    • Beekeeping
    • Bee Products
    • Sexes and Castes
    • Defense

    The genus name Apis is Latin for "bee". Although modern dictionaries may refer to Apis as either honey bee or honeybee, entomologist Robert Snodgrass asserts that correct usage requires two words, i.e. honey bee, as it is a kind or type of bee, whereas it is incorrect to run the two words together, as in dragonfly or butterfly, because the latter are not flies, and have no connection with dragons or butter. Honey bee, not honeybee, is the listed common name in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System, the Entomological Society of America Common Names of Insects Database, and the Tree of Life Web Project.

    Honey bees appear to have their center of origin in South and Southeast Asia (including the Philippines), as all the extant species except Apis mellifera are native to that region. Notably, living representatives of the earliest lineages to diverge (Apis florea and Apis andreniformis) have their center of origin there. The first Apis bees appear in the fossil record at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (34 mya), in European deposits. The origin of these prehistoric honey bees does not necessarily indicate Europe as the place of origin of the genus, only that the bees were present in Europe by that time. Few fossil deposits are known from South Asia, the suspected region of honey bee origin, and fewer still have been thoroughly studied. No Apis species existed in the New World during human times before the introduction of A. mellifera by Europeans. Only one fossil species is documented from the New World, Apis nearctica, known from a single 14 million-year-old specimen from Nevada. The c...

    Tribe Apini Latreille Genus Apis Linnaeus (sensu lato) 1. henshawi species group (†Priorapis Engel, †Synapis Cockerell) 1.1. 1.1.1. †A. vetustaEngel 1.1.2. †A. henshawiCockerell 1.1.3. †A. petrefacta(Říha) 1.1.4. †A. miocenicaHong 1.1.5. †A. "longtibia"Zhang 1.1.6. †A."Miocene 1" 2. armbrusteri species group (†Cascapis Engel) 2.1. 2.1.1. †A. armbrusteriZeuner 2.1.2. †A. nearctica, species novus 3. florea species group (Micrapis Ashmead) 3.1. 3.1.1. A. floreaFabricius 3.1.2. A. andreniformisSmith 4. dorsata species group (Megapis Ashmead) 4.1. 4.1.1. †A. lithohermaeaEngel 4.1.2. A. dorsataFabricius 4.1.3. A. laboriosaSmith 5. mellifera species group (Apis Linnaeus sensu stricto) 5.1. mellifera subgroup 5.1.1. A. mellifera Linnaeus (Apis Linnaeus sensu strictissimo) 5.2. cerana subgroup (Sigmatapis Maa) 5.2.1. A. ceranaFabricius 5.2.2. A. nigrocinctaSmith 5.2.3. A. koschevnikoviEnderlein

    As in a few other types of eusocial bees, a colony generally contains one queen bee, a female; seasonally up to a few thousand drone bees, or males; and tens of thousands of female worker bees. Details vary among the different species of honey bees, but common features include: 1. Eggs are laid singly in a cell in a wax honeycomb, produced and shaped by the worker bees. Using her spermatheca, the queen can choose to fertilize the egg she is laying, usually depending on which cell she is laying it into. Drones develop from unfertilised eggs and are haploid, while females (queens and worker bees) develop from fertilised eggs and are diploid. Larvae are initially fed with royal jelly produced by worker bees, later switching to honey and pollen. The exception is a larva fed solely on royal jelly, which will develop into a queen bee. The larva undergoes several moultings before spinning a cocoon within the cell, and pupating. 2. Young worker bees, sometimes called "nurse bees", clean the...

    Of all the honey bee species, only A. melliferahas been used extensively for commercial pollination of fruit and vegetable crops. The scale of these pollination services is commonly measured in the billions of dollars, credited with adding about 9% to the value of crops across the world. However, despite contributing substantially to crop pollination, there is debate about the potential spillover to natural landscapes and competition between managed honey bees and many of the ~20,000 species of wild pollinators. Species of Apis are generalist floral visitors, and pollinate many species of flowering plants, but because of their "generalized" nature, they do so inefficiently. Without specialized adaptations for specific flowers, their ability to reach pollen and nectar is often limited. What's more, their tendency to visit all species in a given area means that the pollen they carry for any one species is often very diluted. As such, they can provide some pollination to many plants, e...

    Honey bees obtain all of their nutritional requirements from a diverse combination of pollen and nectar. Pollen is the only natural protein source for honey bees. Adult worker honey bees consume 3.4–4.3 mg of pollen per day to meet a dry matter requirement of 66–74% protein. The rearing of one larva requires 125-187.5 mg pollen or 25-37.5 mg protein for proper development. Dietary proteins are broken down into amino acids, ten of which are considered essential to honey bees: methionine, tryptophan, arginine, lysine, histidine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, threonine, leucine, and valine. Of these amino acids, honey bees require highest concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, and valine, however elevated concentrations of arginine and lysine are required for brood rearing.In addition to these amino acids, some B vitamins including biotin, folic acid, nicotinamide, riboflavin, thiamine, pantothenate, and most importantly, pyridoxine are required to rear larvae. Pyridoxine is the most prev...

    The only domesticated species of honey bee are A. mellifera and A. cerana, and they are often maintained, fed, and transported by beekeepers. In Japan, where mellifera is vulnerable to local hornets and disease, the Japanese honey bee a. cerana japonica is used in its place. Modern hives also enable beekeepers to transport bees, moving from field to field as the crop needs pollinating and allowing the beekeeper to charge for the pollination services they provide, revising the historical role of the self-employed beekeeper, and favoring large-scale commercial operations. Bees of various types other than honey bees are also domesticated and used for pollination or other means around the world, including Tetragonula iridipennis in India, the blue orchard bee for tree nut and fruit pollination in the United States, and a number of species of Bombus (bumblebees) for pollination in various regions globally, such as tomatoes, which are not effectively pollinated by honey bees.


    Honey is the complex substance made when bees ingest nectar, process it, and store the substance into honey combs. All living species of Apis have had their honey gathered by indigenous peoples for consumption. A. mellifera and A. ceranaare the only species that have had their honey harvested for commercial purposes.


    Worker bees of a certain age secrete beeswax from a series of exocrine glands on their abdomens.They use the wax to form the walls and caps of the comb. As with honey, beeswax is gathered by humans for various purposes such as candle making, waterproofing, soap and cosmetics manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, art, furniture polish and more.

    Bee bread

    Bees collect pollen in their pollen basketsand carry it back to the hive. Worker bees combine pollen, honey and glandular secretions and allow it to ferment in the comb to make bee bread. The fermentation process releases additional nutrients from the pollen and can produce antibiotics and fatty acids which inhibit spoilage. Bee bread is eaten by nurse bees (younger workers) which produce the protein-rich royal jelly needed by the queen and developing larvae in their hypopharyngeal glands.In...

    Honey bees have three castes: drones, workers, and queens.Drones are male, while workers and queens are female.

    All honey bees live in colonies where the workers sting intruders as a form of defense, and alarmed bees release a pheromone that stimulates the attack response in other bees. The different species of honey bees are distinguished from all other bee species (and virtually all other Hymenoptera) by the possession of small barbs on the sting, but these barbs are found only in the worker bees. The sting apparatus, including the barbs, may have evolved specifically in response to predation by vertebrates, as the barbs do not usually function (and the sting apparatus does not detach) unless the sting is embedded in fleshy tissue. While the sting can also penetrate the membranes between joints in the exoskeleton of other insects (and is used in fights between queens), in the case of Apis cerana japonica, defense against larger insects such as predatory wasps (e.g. Asian giant hornet) is usually performed by surrounding the intruder with a mass of defending worker bees, which vibrate their...

  6. › 2021-calendar2021 Calendar

    Nov 22, 2021 · This website shows every (annual) calendar including 2021, 2022 and 2023. This can be very useful if you are looking for a specific date (When there's a holiday / vacation for example) or maybe you want to know what the week number of a date in 2021 is.

  7. › tag › foodFood - HISTORY

    Nov 22, 2021 · As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, Americans woke up to a new kind of breakfast. Poured from a box into a bowl and doused with milk, cold cereals like Kellogg’s Toasted Corn Flakes, Grape ...

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