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  1. El Escorial - Wikipedia › wiki › El_Escorial

    El Escorial, or the Royal Site of San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Spanish: Monasterio y Sitio de El Escorial en Madrid), or Monasterio del Escorial (Spanish pronunciation: [el eskoˈɾjal]), is a historical residence of the King of Spain located in the town of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, 2.06 km (1.28 mi) up the valley (4.1 km [2.5 mi] road distance) from the town of El Escorial and about 45 ...

  2. Princess Diana Memorials Around the World | › royals › princess-diana-memorials

    Aug 27, 2015 · The most recent addition to the collection of Diana memorials is located in Vienna, Austria, and is the only homage to Diana in a German-speaking country. Unveiled in September 2013, a bust and...

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  4. Spanish Royal Burial Sites: House of Habsburg | Unofficial ... › royal-burial-sites › spanish

    The Royal Crypt is located beneath the basilica and the convent. There are two separate Pantheons containing the remains. The Pantheon of Kings contains the remains of Kings and Queen Consorts who were also mothers of Kings of Spain. The Pantheon of Infantes is resting place of other members of the Spanish Royal Family.

  5. Maria Leopoldina of Austria - Wikipedia › en:Maria_Leopoldina_of_Austria
    • Early Years
    • Proxy Wedding in Vienna: Political Strategy
    • from Austria to The New World and The Scientific Mission
    • Regent and Empress of Brazil
    • Decline in Health and Death
    • Legacy
    • Depictions in Culture
    • Titles and Honours
    • Children
    • References

    Birth and parentage

    Maria Leopoldina was born on 22 January 1797 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Archduchy of Austria. She was the sixth (but third surviving) child of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (who from 1804, became in Emperor of Austria with the title of Francis I, because Napoleon Bonaparte demanded that he renounce the title of Holy Roman Emperor when he was crowned Emperor of the French) but the fifth (third surviving) child and fourth (second surviving) daughter born from his second marriage with Mar...


    On 13 April 1807 the 10-years-old Archduchess lost her mother after she died due to complications after her last premature childbirth. A year later (6 January 1808), her father would remarry the one Maria Leopoldina would describe as the most important person in her life: Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este. First-cousin of her husband and granddaughter of Empress Maria Theresa, the new Empress surpassed her predecessor in culture and intellectual brilliance, for she had had a thorough education....

    For centuries, royal marriages have served as forms of alliance and political support. Through marriage, a web of interests and solidarity was built that integrated the geopolitical cartography of the European continent. The marriage between Maria Leopoldina and Dom Pedro de Alcântara, Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, resulted in a strategic alliance between the monarchies of Portugal and Austria. With this union, the House of Habsburg-Lorraine fulfilled the famous motho: Bella gerant alii, tu, felix Austria, nube("Let others wage war, thou, happy Austria, marry"). On 24 September 1816 it was announced by Emperor Francis I that Dom Pedro de Alcântara, wished to take a Habsburg Archduchess as his wife. Prince Klemens von Metternich suggested that it should be Maria Leopoldina to go get married, as it was "her turn" to become a wife. The Marquis of Marialva had an enormous role in the wedding negotiations, the same one who had negotiated, advise...

    The crossing of the Atlantic

    Maria Leopoldina's trip to Brazil was difficult and time-consuming. The Archduchess left Vienna for Florence on 2 June 1817, where she awaited instructions from the Portuguese court to proceed with the journey that would take her to her husband, Dom Pedro. The reestablishment of the monarchical order was still recent, removed in Recife by rebels of liberal ideas in the episode known as Pernambucan revolt. This was the first time the Archduchess saw the sea. Maria Leopoldina embarked in Livorn...

    Austrian Scientific Mission

    Brazil had the privilege of being portrayed and studied by European artists and scientists of the first order long before other American countries. Still in the 17th century, in the context of the Dutch occupation of northeastern Brazil, Prince John Maurice of Nassau-Siegen brought to Brazil a significant group of collaborators, among which we can mention Willem Piso, a doctor who came to study tropical diseases; Frans Post , famous painter, then in his early twenties; Albert Eckhout, also a...

    Background of the Independence

    The year 1821 was decisive in Maria Leopoldina's life. Belonging to one of the most conservative and enduring families in Europe (the House of Habsburg-Lorraine) she came from a careful education based on the molds of the absolutist monarchies of the time. In June 1821, a frightened Maria Leopoldina wrote to her father “My husband, God help us, loves the new ideas”, suspicious of the new constitutional and liberal political values; she personally witnessed the events that took place in Europe...

    The conspirator of São Cristóvão

    Maria Leopoldina grew up fearing popular revolutions due to the example of her great-aunt Marie Antoinette, the last Queen of France, guillotined during the French Revolution.However, the fear of revolutions that would diminish the powers of the monarchs by popular revolt as happened in France in 1789 and recently in Portugal in 1820 was not seen in Brazil: "As soon as the autonomist movement and then the independence movement won Dom Pedro and Dona Leopoldina as protagonists, the Brazilians...


    When her husband traveled to São Paulo in August 1822 to pacify politics (which culminated in the proclamation of Brazil's Independence in September), Maria Leopoldina was appointed as his official representative, that is, as Regent in his absence. Her status was confirmed with a document of investiture dated 13 August 1822 in which Dom Pedro appointing her head of the Council of State and Acting Princess-Regent of the Kingdom of Brazil, giving her complete authority to take any necessary pol...

    Popular commotion

    King John VI of Portugal died on 10 March 1826; Dom Pedro in consequence inherited the Portuguese throne as King Pedro IV, while remaining Emperor Pedro I of Brazil. Maria Leopoldina thus became both Empress consort of Brazil and Queen consort of Portugal. However, aware that a reunion of Brazil and Portugal would be unacceptable to the people of both nations, less than two months later, on 2 May, Dom Pedro hastily abdicated the crown of Portugal in favor of their eldest daughter Maria da Gló...

    Cause of death

    There are disagreements about the real cause of death of the first Empress of Brazil. For some authors, Maria Leopoldina would have died as a result of puerperal sepsis, while the Emperor was in Rio Grande do Sul, where he had inspected the troops during the Cisplatine War. The version that Maria Leopoldina died as a result of the attacks on her during a tantrum of her husband, is a widespread theory corroborated by historians such as Gabriac, Carl Seidler, John Armitage and Isabel Lustosa. T...


    During Maria Leopoldina's agony, the most diverse rumors arose: that the Empress was a prisoner at the Quinta da Boa Vista, that she was being poisoned by her doctor at the behest of the Marchioness of Santos, among others. Domitila de Castro's popularity, which was no longer the best, worsened, with her house in São Cristóvão being stoned and her brother-in-law, a buttler of the Empress, received two shots.The Marchioness' right to preside over medical appointments of the Empress, as her lad...

    Although she is portrayed as a melancholic woman and humiliated by the scandals and extramarital relations of Dom Pedro I (representing her as the fragile link in the love triangle), the most recent historiography has claimed to Maria Leopoldina a less passive image in national history. Maria Leopoldina had great prominence in Brazilian politics, either when the Portuguese court returned to Portugal, or behind the scenes of the friction between Brazil and Portugal until the moment of Independence in 1822. While Dom Pedro I still maintained the possibility of maintaining the United Kingdom with Portugal, Maria Leopoldina had already found that the most prudent path was the total emancipation of the metropolis. Maria Leopoldina's intellectual and political education, combined with her strong sense of duty and sacrifice on behalf of the State, were fundamental to Brazil, especially after King John VI, under Portuguese pressure, was forced to return to Lisbon. In view of the fact that s...

    Empress Maria Leopoldina has already been portrayed as a character in cinema and television, being played by Kate Hansen in the film Independência ou Morte (1972), by Maria Padilha in the miniseries Marquesa de Santos (1984) and by Érika Evantini in the miniseries O Quinto dos Infernos(2002). Maria Leopoldina's life was also the subject of the 1996 plot of the samba school Imperatriz Leopoldinense, whose name already derives indirectly from her (because the school is based in the area of the Estrada de Ferro Leopoldina, named in honor of the Empress). On the occasion, the carnival designer and professor Rosa Magalhães received support from the Austriangovernment for the parade. In 2007, the actress Ester Elias gave life to Maria Leopoldina in the musical Império, by Miguel Falabella, which tells part of the history of the Empire of Brazil. In 2017, actress Letícia Colin played the Empress Maria Leopoldina in the telenovela Novo Mundo. In 2018, Maria Leopoldina and Imperatriz Leopold...


    1. 22 January 1797 – 11 August 1804 Her Royal HighnessArchduchess Leopoldina of Austria 2. 11 August 1804 – 6 November 1817 Her Imperial and Royal HighnessArchduchess and Princess Imperial Leopoldina of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia 3. 6 November 1817 – 12 October 1822 Her Imperial and Royal HighnessThe Princess Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, Duchess of Braganza, Archduchess and Princess Imperial of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Boh...


    1. United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves: 1.1. Dame Grand Mistress of the Order of Saint Isabel 1.2. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa 2. Empire of Brazil: 2.1. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Pedro I 2.2. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross 3. Austrian Empire: Dame of the Order of the Starry Cross 4. Spain: Dame of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa 5. Kingdom of Bavaria: Dame of the Order of Saint Elizabeth

    By June 1818 Maria Leopoldina became pregnant, and her first child, Maria da Glória, was born after a difficult delivery on 4 April 1819. Her next pregnancy ended in a miscarriage in November 1819, and on 26 April 1820 she suffered her second miscarriage; the child, a son, was named Miguel in honor of his paternal uncle and died almost inmediately. These failed pregnancies had a profound effect in Maria Leopoldina, who, conscient about her primary duty to bore an heir to the House of Bragança, became depressed and withdraw from society for a time. Her first living son, João Carlos, Prince of Beira, was born on 6 March 1821, to the joy of the court and population, but died on 4 February 1822 aged 11 months. Her next three pregnancies resulted in three daughters, Januária (born 11 March 1822), Paula (born 17 February 1823) and Francisca (born 2 August 1824) until the birth of the long-hoped son and heir, the future Emperor Dom Pedro II, on 2 December 1825. Her ninth and last pregnancy...

    Oberacker, Carlos H. (1988). Leopoldine: Habsburgs Kaiserin von Brasilien (in German). Vienna/Munich: Amalthea. ISBN 3-85002-265-X.
    Barman, Roderick J. (1988). Brazil: The Forging of a Nation, 1798–1852. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-1437-2.
    Barman, Roderick J. (1999). Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
    Branco, João Carlos Feo Cardoso de Castello (1838). Resenha das familias titulares do reino de Portugal: Acompanhada das notícias biográphicas de alguns indivíduos da mesmas famílias(in Portuguese)...
  6. Zita of Bourbon-Parma - Wikipedia › wiki › Zita_of_Bourbon-Parma

    Zita of Bourbon-Parma (Zita Maria delle Grazie Adelgonda Micaela Raffaela Gabriella Giuseppina Antonia Luisa Agnese; 9 May 1892 – 14 March 1989) was the wife of Charles, the last monarch of Austria-Hungary. As such, she was the last Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary, in addition to other titles.

  7. AUSTRIA – Vienna, Lower & Upper Austria (Linz, St. Pölten ... › 2019/09/26 › austria-vienna

    Sep 26, 2019 · Located nearby the junction of the Danube Canal and the Danube itself, the Friedhof Der Namenlosen is hidden behind gigantic grain warehouses and equally enormous silos. The cemetery used to be little visited, especially since all of the 104 bodies were buried there before 1940.

  8. Royal Burial Sites of the Principality of Reuss-Gera ... › royal-burial-sites › german

    More than 90 members of the families of the Counts and Princes Reuss are buried at the Bergkirche St. Marien. Only the twenty-four restored coffins in the Princely Crypt are visible today. The other family members are buried in crypts under the nave of the church. The renovated Princely Crypt; Credit – Bergkirche St. Marien in Schleiz

  9. Princes of Battenberg – Dukes and Princes › 2020/11/16 › princes-of-battenberg

    Nov 16, 2020 · He retired to Austria and assumed the name ‘Count von Hartenau’, marrying in 1889 an Austria opera singer, Johanna Loisinger. But when he died a few years later, he was buried in Bulgaria, as a sovereign.

  10. The Habsburgs had an elaborate burial tradition: their hearts ... › The-Habsburgs-had-an-elaborate

    This was not unique to the Habsburgs but actually a very common rite for higher aristocracy of Medieval and Modern Europe. The church tried to ban it as a pagan ritual but they never succeeded and eventually even popes had it done.

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