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  1. Queen Isabel died on October 6, 1644, aged 41, at the Royal Alcázar in Madrid. Her remains are buried in the Pantheon of Kings in the Royal Crypt of the Monastery of El Escorial. Mariana of Austria, Queen of Spain. Wikipedia: Mariana of Austria; Mariana of Austria was the second wife of Philip IV of Spain, and the mother of Charles II.

    • Background and Early Life
    • World War I
    • Interbellum Period
    • World War II, French Resistance, and Banderites
    • Soviet Arrest
    • Indictment
    • Rehabilitation

    Archduke Wilhelm was the youngest son of Archduke Karl Stephan and Archduchess Maria Theresia, Princess of Tuscany. He was born in a family estate on the Lošinj island, Austrian Littoral (present day Croatia). During his arrest by the Soviet authorities he indicated the city of Pola (at the time of arrest in Italy, today Pula, Croatia). Wilhelm also indicated that his social class is "of landowners" (Russian: помещик, pomeschik; Lord of the manor) and he has no occupation.The last one was not accurate as at the moment of arrest he was a businessman-entrepreneur. Wilhelm was growing up in parental estate located in Polish city of Żywiec, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. His father was a patriot of Poland and had inferior feelings towards Ukrainian population. Accommodating the 19th-century rise of nationalism, he decided that his branch of the Habsburg family would adopt a Polish identity and would combine a loyalty to their Habsburg family with a loyalty to Poland. Accordingly, he...

    As Wilhelm studied at the Vienna War College, there began the World War I. Upon graduation in 1915 he went to the frontlines starting his military service in a company of the 13th Galicia Lancer (Ulan) Regiment. The regiment was dominated by Ukrainians around Zoloczow (Zolochiv). While serving in the regiment Wilhelm started to read works of Mykhailo Hrushevsky, Ivan Franko, Taras Shevchenko and others. His soldiers gave him as a present a Ukrainian embroidered shirt-vyshyvanka which he carried under his uniform. Habsburg asked his soldiers to call him Vasyl and later for the embroidered shirt was nicknamed as Vyshyvanyi. During that period he repeatedly had to defend the Galician Ukrainians whom the local administration consisted predominantly of Poles were arresting under suspicion of disloyalty to Austria-Hungary. In 1916 Wilhelm was returned from the frontlines as reaching the age of 21 any member of the Habsburg House automatically were becoming a deputy of the Austria-Hungary...

    In an interview in a Viennese newspaper in January 1921, Wilhelm publicly rebuked Poland, condemning the pogroms in Lwów as something that would never happen in a civilized country, and referring to Poland and Poles as dishonorable. This caused a permanent, public estrangement between Wilhelm and his father Stephan. Formally he continued to be on payroll a colonel of the Ukrainian Army for a little while until the Austrian press published his anti-Polish declarations.Following that the Ukrainian government that temporarily moved to Poland officially fired him. In 1921 Wilhelm published a book of poetry in Ukrainian, Mynayut Dni(Минають дні - The days pass). In circles of Ukrainian political emigrants a hope was burning that the loss is not yet final and the Soviet regime could still be overthrown. In ViennaHabsburg became involved with pro Ukrainian monarchists who saw in him an opportunity, but nothing came out of it. According to laws of the newly formed Austrian Republic every Ha...

    It is uncertain when Wilhelm turned against Nazis, but according to Snyder by start of 1942 he possibly already was spying for some intelligence services, possibly the British SIS which financed and supported resistance movements throughout whole Europe. Eventually he became a spy for the French resistance against the Nazis and then the Soviet Union. In 1944 he became acquainted with some French national Paul Maas who in some documents mentioned as Masse, but possible the name is pseudonym in any case. Germans deported Maas from France to Vienna and forced him to work at the military aviation factory, creating blueprints. Paul had connections whether with British intelligence or French resistance movement or possibly both handing over to his curators copies of factory blueprints for parts. Wilhelm accepted the Paul's offer to fight the occupants together. Thanks to his acquaintances with German officers, Wilhelm became a source of valuable information. From him the Frenchman was rec...

    In March 1947 at his apartment in the American occupational zone of Vienna Kachorovsky too loudly celebrated his birthday and upset neighbors called a police. The Austrian law officers handed the detained over the Soviet military or chekists. The Ministry of State Security (MGB) Counter-Intelligence Department (SMERSH) of the Central Group of Forces that was based in Austria was already interested in Kachorovsky and several months before tried to detain him, but the strong man then managed to fight them off and flee. After interrogations of Kachorovsky in MGB became aware who were Roman Novosad and Vasyl Vyshyvanyi, while the latter one obviously had previously been trapped in field of vision of the Soviet secret service. After several months of hunting after, they first detained Novosad and then Vyshyvanyi, de facto Novosad was detained on 14 June and Habsburg on 26 August. In most documents appear dates not detention, but rather arrest when against them have already taken preventi...

    In his indictment, Wilhelm Habsburg-Lothringen was charged with the following: 1. During World War I "carried out the aggressive plans of the Austro-Hungarian ruling circles and prepared to become the hetman of Ukraine" 2. Fought against the Soviet Army in 1918 (in reality it was the Red Army) 3. Served under Symon Petlura 4. Launched nationalist activities in exile 5. In 1944 he was recruited by the British intelligence and performed its tasks (A strange bullet as in the indictment it is nothing said about the role of Habsburg in establishing contacts between Maas and OUN, only with Germans.) 6. In 1945 he was an agent of the French intelligence service, recruited agents, organized negotiations with OUN and Austrian People's Party Timothy Snyder justly notes about the charges, "Soviet legislation was retroactive and extraterritorial, it was stretching for decades before formation of the Soviet Union and across lands over which Moscow never had its sovereignty". The Novosad's list w...

    During the times of perestroika in 1989, the Soviet Office of Military Prosecutor fully rehabilitated both Habsburg and Novosad. It was Novosad who became the author of first publication about Wilhelm Habsburg in the independent Ukraine, in 1992 his recollections printed the magazine "Ukrayina". By that time the name of Archduke was forgotten. In 1994 the declassified case of Habsburg and Novosad was transferred from the SBU Archive to the Central State Archive of public associations of Ukraine. In 2005 all personal documents and photographs of Habsburg that were kept in his dossier were transferred through the German Ambassador in Ukraine Dietmar Stüdemann to Wilhelm's nephew and citizen of Germany Leo Habsburg-Lothringen.In dossier were kept copies of the documents.

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  3. • Where? Austria, Bavaria, Thuringia, Italy, etc. • Many different patrons (= princes) • Walther as an opportunist: o Always for politics or ideals of his patrons • Different patrons-> different political opinions o Fiefs around 1230 near Würzburg • Death about 1230 (perhaps buried in Würzburg)

    • Early Life
    • Middle Life
    • Later Life
    • Personal Life
    • Patron of The Arts
    • Historical Reputation and Legacy
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    Hôtel de Soissons

    Prince Eugene was born at the Hôtel de Soissons in Paris on 18 October 1663. His mother, Olympia Mancini, was one of Cardinal Mazarin's nieces whom he had brought to Paris from Rome in 1647 to further his, and, to a lesser extent, their ambitions. The Mancinis were raised at the Palais-Royal along with the young Louis XIV, with whom Olympia formed an intimate relationship. Yet to her great disappointment, her chance to become queen passed by, and in 1657, Olympia married Eugene Maurice, Count...

    Great Turkish War

    By May 1683, the Ottoman threat to Emperor Leopold I's capital, Vienna, was very evident. The Grand Vizier, Kara Mustafa Pasha—encouraged by Imre Thököly's Magyar rebellion—had invaded Hungary with between 100,000 and 200,000 men; within two months approximately 90,000 were beneath Vienna's walls. With the 'Turks at the gates', the Emperor fled for the safe refuge of Passau up the Danube, a more distant and secure part of his dominion.It was at Leopold I's camp that Eugene arrived in mid-Augu...

    War of the Spanish Succession

    With the death of the infirm and childless Charles II of Spain on 1 November 1700, the succession of the Spanish throne and subsequent control over her empire once again embroiled Europe in war—the War of the Spanish Succession. On his deathbed Charles II had bequeathed the entire Spanish inheritance to Louis XIV's grandson, Philip, Duke of Anjou. This threatened to unite the Spanish and French kingdoms under the House of Bourbon—something unacceptable to England, the Dutch Republic, and Leop...

    Austro-Turkish War

    Eugene's main reason for desiring peace in the west was the growing danger posed by the Turks in the east. Turkish military ambitions had revived after 1711 when they had mauled Peter the Great's army on the river Pruth (Pruth River Campaign): in December 1714 Sultan Ahmed III's forces attacked the Venetians in the Morea. To Vienna it was clear that the Turks intended to attack Hungary and undo the whole Karlowitz settlement of 1699. After the Porterejected an offer of mediation in April 1716...

    Quadruple Alliance

    While Eugene fought the Turks in the east, unresolved issues following the Utrecht/Rastatt settlements led to hostilities between the Emperor and Philip V of Spain in the west. Charles VI had refused to recognise Philip V as King of Spain, a title which he himself claimed; in return, Philip V had refused to renounce his claims to Naples, Milan, and the Netherlands, all of which had transferred to the House of Austria following the Spanish Succession war. Philip V was roused by his influential...

    Governor-General of the Southern Netherlands

    Eugene had become governor of the Southern Netherlands—then the Austrian Netherlands—in June 1716, but he was an absent ruler, directing policy from Vienna through his chosen representative the Marquis of Prié. Prié proved unpopular with the local population and the guilds who, following the Barrier Treaty of 1715, were obliged to meet the financial demands of the administration and the Dutch barrier garrisons; with Eugene's backing and encouragement, civil disturbances in Antwerp and Brussel...

    'Cold war'

    The 1720s saw rapidly changing alliances between the European powers and almost constant diplomatic confrontation, largely over unsolved issues regarding the Quadruple Alliance. The Emperor and the Spanish King continued to use each other's titles, and Charles VI still refused to remove the remaining legal obstacles to Don Charles' eventual succession to the duchies of Parma and Tuscany. Yet in a surprise move Spain and Austria moved closer with the signing of the Treaty of Vienna in April/Ma...

    War of the Polish Succession

    In 1733 the Polish King and Elector of Saxony, Augustus the Strong, died. There were two candidates for his successor: first, Stanisław Leszczyński, the father-in-law of Louis XV; second, the Elector of Saxony's son, Augustus, supported by Russia, Austria, and Prussia. The Polish succession had afforded Louis XV's chief minister, Fleury, the opportunity to attack Austria and take Lorraine from Francis Stephen. In order to gain Spanish support France backed the succession of Elisabeth Farnese'...

    Eugene never married and was reported to have said that a woman was a hindrance in a war, and that a soldier should never marry, because of this he was called "Mars without Venus". During the last 20 years of his life Eugène had a relationship with one woman, Hungarian Countess Eleonore Batthyány-Strattmann. Much of their acquaintance remains speculative since Eugene left no personal papers: only letters of war, diplomacy and politics.Eugène and Eleonora were constant companions, meeting for dinner, receptions and card games almost every day till his death; although they lived apart most foreign diplomats assumed that Eleonora was his long time mistress. It is not known precisely when their relationship began, but his acquisition of a property in Hungary after the Battle of Zenta, near Rechnitz Castle, made them neighbours. In the years immediately following the War of the Spanish Succession she began to be mentioned regularly in diplomatic correspondence as "Eugen's Egeria" and wit...

    Eugene's rewards for his victories, his share of booty, his revenues from his abbeys in Savoy, and a steady income from his Imperial offices and governorships, enabled him to contribute to the landscape of Baroque architecture Eugene spent most of his life in Vienna at his Winter Palace, the Stadtpalais, built by Fischer von Erlach. The palace acted as his official residence and home, but for reasons that remain speculative the Prince's association with Fischer ended before the building was complete, favouring instead Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt as his chief architect. Eugene first employed Hildebrandt to finish the Stadtpalais before commissioning him to prepare plans for a palace (Savoy Castle) on his Danubian island at Ráckeve. Begun in 1701 the single-story building took twenty years to complete; yet, probably because of the Rákóczi revolt, the Prince seems to have visited it only once—after the siege of Belgradein 1717. Of more importance was the grandiose complex of the two B...

    Napoleon considered Eugene one of the seven greatest commanders of history. Although later military critics have disagreed with that assessment, Eugene was undoubtedly the greatest Austrian general. He was no military innovator, but he had the ability to make an inadequate system work. He was equally adept as an organizer, strategist, and tactician, believing in the primacy of battle and his ability to seize the opportune moment to launch a successful attack. "The important thing," wrote Maurice de Saxe in his Reveries, "is to see the opportunity and to know how to use it. Prince Eugene possessed this quality which is the greatest in the art of war and which is the test of the most elevated genius." This fluidity was key to his battlefield successes in Italy and in his wars against the Turks. Nevertheless, in the Low Countries, particularly after the battle of Oudenarde in 1708, Eugene, like his cousin Louis of Baden, tended to play safe and become bogged down in a conservative stra...


    1. "Stephansdom, Prinz-Eugen-Grabmal". Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften(in German).

    "Memoirs of Prince Eugene, of Savoy. Written by himself". HathiTrust. 13 March 2011. hdl:2027/loc.ark:/13960/t2q533g64.
    von Arneth, Alfred ritter (1864). Prince Eugene of Savoy: years. 1663-1707. Prince Eugene of Savoy: According to the handwritten sources of the Imperial Archives (in German). Braumüller.
    von Arneth, Alfred ritter (1858). Prince Eugene of Savoy: years. 1708-1718. Prince Eugene of Savoy: According to the handwritten sources of the Imperial Archives (in German). Braumüller.
    von Arneth, Alfred ritter (1858). Prince Eugene of Savoy: years. 1719-1736. Prince Eugene of Savoy: According to the handwritten sources of the Imperial Archives (in German). Braumüller.
    • François-Eugène de Savoie-Carignan
    • Field marshal
  4. Sep 16, 2008 · Eastern Europe. Part 5 – Slovakia and Austria -A Velvet Revolution, a Velvet Divorce and A Narrow Escape from the Hammer and Sickle. September 16, 2008. Dateline: Bratislava, Slovakia. Latitude at Bratislava 48.8 degrees North, 17.6 degrees East

  5. Answer: This was not unique to the Habsburgs but actually a very common rite for higher aristocracy of Medieval and Modern Europe. The church tried to ban it as a pagan ritual but they never succeeded and eventually even popes had it done.

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