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  1. Sensory qual­ity. Charac­teristically pure and refreshing odour, pungent and burning taste. The typical mint scent is most pure in pepper­mint, Ja­panese mint (Mentha arvensis var. piperascens) and some varie­ties of green mint (Mentha spicata, but not spear­mint), whereas in most other mints addi­tional flavour com­ponents are dis­cernible; for example, crispate or curly mint (Mentha ...

  2. Next generation sequencing unravels the biosynthetic ability of Spearmint (Mentha spicata) peltate glandular trichomes through comparative transcriptomics.pdf. Available via license: CC BY 4.0.

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  5. Sep 17, 2021 · Mentha spicata: Spearmint is excellent for flavoring teas and salads and is one of the better mints to use as a landscape ground cover. It grows in zones 5 to 9. Mentha piperita citrata: Orange mint is one of the tangiest of the fruit-flavored mints. It grows in zones 4 to 11. Mentha suaveolens: Apple mint combines the flavors of apple and mint ...

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  6. › plants-and-animals › plantsPennyroyal |

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    Pennyroyal (Hedeoma pulegioides ), known as American pennyroyal, and Mentha pulegium, known as English or European pennyroyal, are both members of the Lamiaceae or mint family. These two beneficial herbs, though classified in different genera, have similar chemical constituents and medicinal properties. American pennyroyal is also known as mock pennyroyal, mosquito plant, fleabane, tickweed, stinking balm, and hedeoma. This aromatic American native thrives in limestone-rich soil, in fields, and in sunny patches of open woodlands throughout North America. American pennyroyal was used extensively by Native Americans to treat a variety of ailments from headache and stomach distress to itching , watery eyes, and fevers. For external use, the leaves were crushed and applied to the skin to repel mosquitoes and other insects. American pennyroyal came to be called squawmint and squaw balm because of its traditional use by native women to promote menstrual flow. Women in some Native American...

    Pennyroyal has been used traditionally as a stimulating tea to relieve digestive disorders, gall bladder disorders, gout, nausea , and nervous conditions. Pennyroyal leaf, prepared as a hot infusion, will promote perspiration. Some herbalists suggest the additional treatment of a hot footbath while drinking the herbal infusion as a remedy at the onset of colds and flu. Pennyroyal may relieve headache, bring down fever , and quiet coughs. It has also been used to treat bronchitis and sinusitis. As a carminative (gas-reliever), pennyroyal is considered an effective remedy for flatulence, a virtue it shares with other mints. The herbal infusion has also been used traditionally to treat suppressed menstruation. By far the most controversial and dangerous use of pennyroyal is as an abortifacient. Its emmenagogic properties stimulate uterine contraction and promote menstrual flow. The essential oil has been used for centuries to induce abortion. This use of the essential oil of pennyroyal...

    The essential oil of pennyroyal and the fresh or dried leaves and stems are medicinally active. Gather fresh leaves in the summer, on a dry and sunny day when the herb is in blossom. Hang bundles of the herb to dry in a light, airy room out of direct sunlight. When the herb is thoroughly dry, strip the leaves from the stems and store in tightly sealed, clearly labeled, dark-glass containers. Infusion: Place 2 oz of fresh, or 1 oz of dried, pennyroyal leaves in a warmed glass container. Bring 2.5 cups of fresh, nonchlorinated water to a boil and add it to the herbs. Do not boil the tea. Cover and infuse the tea for about 10 minutes. Strain. The prepared tea will store for about two days in the refrigerator. This infusion may be used externally as a soothing skin wash. According to some herbalists, pennyroyal leaf infusion may also be safely consumed as a medicinal tea, taking up to two cups throughout the day. Others, however, including the PDR For Herbal Medicines, recommend that pe...

    Pregnant women should never ingest pennyroyal, particularly the oil, nor should they apply the oil externally as it may be absorbed through the skin. Pennyroyal essential oil contains as much as 85% of the ketone pulegone, an extremely toxic phytochemical. Overdose of the essential oil has been reported to cause severe liver damage, coma, and death. Quantities as small as 0.5 tsp of the essential oil have caused extremely toxic reactions. The effective abortifacient dosage is dangerously close to the lethal dose. Women have died when attempting to induce abortion by ingesting pennyroyal oil. American pennyroyal contains twice as much of the toxic volatile oil as European pennyroyal. The PDR For Herbal Medicinesrecommends that the drug not be used because of its hepatotoxicity, although with proper dosage and administration of the foliage drug, poisoning is not likely.

    Contact dermatitisis possible when using crushed leaf or the undiluted oil extract on the skin to repel insects.


    Duke, James A. The Green Pharmacy.Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1997. Foster, Steven, and James A. Duke. Peterson Field Guides, Eastern/Central Medicinal Plants. Boston-New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990. Medical Economics Company. PDR for Herbal Medicines.Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 1998. Tyler, Varro E. The Honest Herbal. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1993. Weiss, Gaea, and Shandor Weiss. Growing & Using The Healing Herbs. New York: Wings Books, 1992.


    Anderson, Ilene B., Walter H. Mullen, et al. "Pennyroyal Toxicity: Measurement of Toxic Metabolite Levels in Two Cases and Review of the Literature." Annals of Internal Medicine 124 (April 1996): 726–734. Chen, L. J., et al. "Metabolism of (R)-(+)-pulegone in F344 Rats." Drug Metabolism and Disposal 29 (December 2001): 1567–77. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Special Nutritionals. FDA/CFSAN Report, October 20, 1998.


    "Herbal Abortifacients." Westside Crisis Pregnancy Center.[cited January 2033]. . "Pennyroyal." Viable Herbal Solutions.[cited January 2003]. . Clare Hanrahan Rebecca J. Frey, PhD

  7. This tea, however, does not contain caffeine. It blends well with other herbs, such as the lemon-flavored ones, mint and also green tea. —Susan Belsinger, culinary herbalist, Brookeville, Maryland. My favorite is probably spearmint (Mentha spicata). It’s a little mellower than peppermint.

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