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    • Where in England is Flanders Fields?

      • Flanders Fields is a common English name of the World War I battlefields in an area straddling the Belgian provinces of West Flanders and East Flanders as well as the French department of Nord-Pas-de-Calais , part of which makes up the area known as French Flanders.
  1. Mar 07, 2019 · Belgian emigration to the United States began in earnest during the nineteenth century. Three types of migratory movements characterize the earliest phase of Belgian immigration to the United States. First, from the beginning of the nineteenth century onward, individual pioneers ventured into the New World to explore and settle the land.

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    • The Late Middle Ages
    • The Habsburg Netherlands
    • The Spanish and Austrian Low Countries After 1648
    • The French Occupation
    • The United Kingdom of The Netherlands
    • The Kingdom of Belgium
    • The Flemish Movement
    • Dutch in Belgium Today
    • The Dutch of The Flemish Immigrants
    • Conclusion

    Etymologically, the words Deutsch [the German word for German], Duits [the Dutch word for German] and Dutch [the English word for Nederlands] derive from the Germanic word diets, meaning “of the people.” During the late Middle Ages, more and more authors in the Low Countries wrote in their local diets as opposed to Latin. At the same time they wanted to ensure that their works could be read by people in the important areas around them. Thus the “language of the people” or Diets spoken in the powerful cities of Flanders such as Bruges and Ghent heavily influenced their written language. As the power of the Flemish cities was replaced by the Brabant cities of Antwerp, Mechelen, and Leuven during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, more Brabant characteristics entered the Dietslanguage.

    Charles V, the Habsburg emperor (1516-1555) unified the seventeen provinces of the Nederlanden [literally, the Low Countries]. The Nederlandic Provinces included all of what is now the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg, with the exception of the Belgian province of Liège, and with the inclusion of a large part of Northern France. Gradually the use of the term Diets/Duits disappeared from use and was replaced by the word Nederlands. In 1550 Joos Lambrecht issued a spelling book and called it Neederlandsche Spellijnghe.The growth of commerce and cultural exchanges within the Low Countries necessitated (and therefore stimulated) the gradual standardization of the Dutch language. Brabant, and especially Antwerp, the printing capital of the Low Countries, led the way.

    They would have continued to do so, were it not for the 80-year war (1568-1648), which separated Charles’s United Provinces into the Spanish Low Countries and the Republic of the United Netherlands. The courts and administrations of the Dutch Republic started to use Dutch, not Latin or French, as their official language. In the Spanish Netherlands, however, the higher courts and nobility continued to use Latin or French. Besides the nobility, the bourgeoisie in cities such as Ghent and Antwerp also increasingly spoke French. For the next one hundred and fifty years, French was regarded as the ‘high’ language here, and Dutch, more and more, as the ‘low.’ Consequently, as of the seventeenth century, the standard Dutch language [Algemeen Nederlands] was cultivated primarily in the North, under the influence of the language of the new Dutch urban bourgeoisie, and no longer in the south. In 1637 the first Dutch translation of the bible, based on Greek, Aramaic and Hebrew originals (not L...

    The French occupation and annexation of the Low Countries solidified the status of French in the Southern Netherlands, and introduced it as the official language in the provinces of the former Dutch Republic. In 1806, Napoleon even prohibited the use of any other language in the courts and administration. His policies largely failed among the lower classes but found traction among the more prosperous middle class in Flanders who wanted to distinguish themselves from the lower populace.

    When the United Kingdom of the Netherlands was established in 1815, the course was reversed, but for most of Southern provinces, it was too late. In 1819, King William I forbade the use of French in Flanders, and encouraged the teaching of Dutch at schools and universities. These measures did not sit well with the now predominantly French-speaking bourgeoisie in the South. This and William’s other authoritarian measures led to the Belgian Revolution and the establishment of the Kingdom of Belgium in 1830.

    The constitution of Belgium guaranteed “freedom of language,” but in practice French once again dominated public life in Flanders as well as Wallonia. Judges and lawyers conducted all business in French. The standard academic language at all universities, including those located in Flanders, was French.12The major newspapers were written in French and were read by the upper classes across the entire country.13Flemish, in all its local variants, was for the peasants and working class. A Fleming with ambition need not polish his Flemish, but learn French. French was the language of good taste, culture and social progress. This was the accepted norm throught Belgium, and for a long time it went unchallenged. As a result, there was no stimulus to create something like a standardized Flemish or Dutch language in Belgium.

    The Flemish movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century sought to change the predominance of French. The leaders of this crusade were middle-class professionals who rejected the use of French but at the same time did not want to use the dialects of the lower classes. Instead, these so-called integrationistsaspired for linguistic unity and adopted the standardized Dutch of the Netherlands as their new norm. A few particularists, such as Guido Gezelle, Hugo Verriest and Leonard De Bo, strove for a “Catholic Flemish language,” different from the “Protestant Dutch” of the North. The vision of the Gent and Antwerp integrationists gained the upper hand however. Slowly the rights of the Dutch language in Flanders were restored. In 1898, the so-called equality law put Dutch on equal footing with French for parliamentary debates and the promulgation of the law. Implementation of the law however was slow. On the eve of World War I, Catholic secondary and all higher education i...

    What developed in Flanders in the meantime was an “in between language,” [tussentaal], an informal spoken language with grammatical and phonological characteristics of the speaker’s local dialect. Since the early 2000s there has been a call for greater recognition of this Belgian Dutch or Flemish tussentaal, some even arguing for it to be used in school settings. Flemish pronunciation and word preference are no long considered inferior or bad Dutch. Dialects are also experiencing a comeback. Popular singer-songwriters perform in their local dialect. Wannes Van de Velde (Antwerp) and Willem Vermandere (West Flanders) were some of the pioneers. Today Flip Kowlier (Izegem, West Flanders), Biezebaaze (Gent, East Flanders), and Slongs Dievanongs (Antwerp) perform exclusively in their dialect.14 But linguists will tell you there is no autonomous Flemish language. The people in Flanders use the standard Dutch language when they write. Jacques van Keymeulen, a professor of linguistics at th...

    Now let us go back to our Flemish-Americans. A large majority of Flemish immigrants left Belgium during the emergence of the Flemish Movement at the end of nineteenth and early twentieth century. They had received little schooling and spoke their local dialect, i.e. a strong regional variant of the Dutch language. They did not identify with Dutch as it was spoken by the Protestant north, and therefore did not refer to their language as Dutch. But in order to communicate with Belgians from other areas in Flanders, they probably also developed some sort of Flemish tussentaal.16 Many Flemish immigrants also sympathized with the Flemish emancipation movement. Charles Viane, a regular contributor to the Gazette van Molinepondered in 1908: America provided the immigrants with a chance for upward mobility. While they may not have been outspokenly “Flamingant”17 in the old country, their new lives, homesteads, and positions in this country instilled in them a pride in their own culture and...

    In sum, is not wrong to state that your ancestor spoke Flemish. But explain that this Flemish was the strong regional Dutch dialect that was spoken in his or her native village, or the in-between language the Flemish immigrants created in order to communicate among themselves. And when you refer to people of Flanders today, know that they speak Dutch, not Flemish (just as Americans speak English, not American).

  2. Dictionary H HAAS, A. M., planter. Born, Alsace, France, August 18, 1833. Immigrated to Louisiana, ca. 1845. Married Mary Macarinah ("Maccie") Marshall (1848-1876). A colonel in the Confederate Army; member of the honor guard at funeral of Jefferson Davis (q.v.). Owned the plantation on which the town of Bunkie is located and

  3. Also, the region as a whole has witnessed some of the highest population growth in the United States, and according to the US Census Bureau, in 2008–2009, Utah was the fastest-growing state in America. As of the 2010 Census, Nevada was the fastest-growing state in the United States, with an increase of 35.1% in the last ten years ...

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  5. the several States, except where the Constitution, treaties or statutes of the United States shall otherwise require or provide, shall be regarded as rules of decision in trials at common law in the Courts of the United States, in cases where they apply." This Section 34 was inserted as a Senate amendment. Fourth, -

  6. Aug 13, 2020 · The United States Post Office (USPO) was created on July 26, 1775, by decree of the Second Continental Congress. [5] Benjamin Franklin headed it briefly. Before the Revolution, individuals like Benjamin Franklin and William Goddard were the colonial postmasters who managed the mails then and were the general architects of a postal system that ...

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