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  1. Sep 18, 2016 · This article explores how phenomenology, a particular approach to understanding consciousness, can vivify and better honor clients' experiences in therapy.

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  2. The humanistic theory is founded on the matter that humans endlessly aim to be the best of their ability, while the existential theory is founded on individuals seeking to discover the purpose of life (Burger, 2014). Well-known theorists such as Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl have all studied both theories, have determined the ...

  3. Sep 22, 2020 · What is existential-humanistic psychotherapy? Existential-humanistic psychotherapy helps clients discover their own uniqueness through acquiring a greater awareness of themselves and the world around them. The therapist assists clients by teaching them to see their resistance so that they can have a more meaningful existence.

  4. Jul 01, 2020 · This is a good example of existential-humanistic leadership where I-positions are re-organized to stimulate novelty to the benefit of the group’s learning process. Still, the process of how Perls arrived at this specific type of leadership remains unclear and unknown.

    • Enno Freiherr von Fircks
    • 3
    • 2020
  5. Jan 20, 2004 · In "The Secular Cure of Souls" (JSEA, issue 14.2), and a talk delivered to the International Federation for Psychoanalytic Education on November 2, 2002, entitled "The Cure of Souls in The Therapeutic State", Thomas Szasz goes to great lengths to differentiate between himself from R.D. Laing, whose life and work I have studied in some detail. It is quite true, as Szasz points out, that Szasz ...

    • A Brief History of Self Psychology
    • Existential-Humanistic Aspects of Self Psychology
    • Values and Ideals
    • Advantages of Self Psychology Over Existential-Humanistic Therapies
    • What Self Psychology Can Learn from Existential Humanism
    • Summary and Conclusions

    Self psychology is largely the creation of Heinz Kohut, although there are many other creative theorists currently adding to and modifying self psychology theory and clinical practice. Some of these are Arnold Goldberg (1978, 1980), Robert Stolorow (Atwood & Stolorow, 1984; Stolorow, Brandschaft, & Atwood, 1987; Stolorow & Lachmann, 1980), Michael Basch (1980, 1983), Paul and Anna Ornstein (Ornstein & Ornstein, 1980, 1985), and Estelle and Morton Shane (Shane, 1985; Shane & Shane, 1980). Kohut was a Viennese-born psychoanalyst who lived, practiced, and taught in Chicago after coming to the United States in 1940. Until 1971, when he published his first book, The Analysis of the Self, Kohut was known as an orthodox analyst, a favorite of Anna Freud's, and a leading light in the branch of Freudian analysis loosely called ego psychology. Starting with his 1971book, however, he began to create a theory and form of therapy that, although in­cluding the analytic basic assumption of the dec...

    Although a complete exposition of self psychology is beyond the scope of this article, I shall attempt to discuss aspects of the theory and therapeutic methodology in considering each of the points I make.

    Although Freud's concept of the superego certainly stressed the importance of internalized (usually introjected) moral precepts and ideals in human functioning, Kohut made the presence of firm, coherent, mature ideals part of the basic strength or resiliency of the individual. These ideals are part of the idealizing pole of the bipolar self. Significantly, he does not specify which values he thinks people should have-that, he believed, was up to the individual. He did believe, however, that these values and ideals are important ingredients in a cohesive, resilient self, as important as the individual's ambitions, which are part of the other pole of the self. For example, one client of mine, a handsome, charming, intelli­gent man, was a successful lawyer. He worked in an area of law that he saw, however, as meaningless, and his view of the worth of his work made it impossible for him to feel proud of his success. His lack of firm values and ideals also made it impossible for him to d...

    If Kohut merely mirrored many of the ideas and beliefs of existential-humanism, there would be little advantage to his the­ory. However, I believe there are many advantages to self psychol­ogy, advantages that originally stimulated me to attempt to inte­grate self psychology with Gestalt therapy (Tobin, 1982).

    All too often one gets the impression from reading Kohut that his theoretical and philosophical ideas sprang spontaneously from his own mind and were not based on the ideas of others. For example, Winnicott's concept of the "subjective object" is very similar to Kohut's concept of the "selfobject," but Kohut makes no mention of Winnicott as a contributor to his own theories. Recognizing this, he attempts to explain this neglect as due to his aim, at least in his 1977 book, The Restoration of the Self, of "an attempt to struggle toward greater clarity" rather than "scholarly completeness" (Kohut, 1977, p. xx). Similarly, Rogers has made extremely impor­tant contributions to the use of empathy in therapy and, although Kohut earlier defined empathy differently from Rogers in his last article (Kohut, 1982), he seemed to be taking an identical position (Chessick, 1985), yet there is no mention of Rogers. Rollo May (1958) 30 years ago gave a profound description of the compartmentaliza­ti...

    In this article I have attempted to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of orthodox psychoanalysis and existential-humanistic psychology, to show how psychoanalytic self psychology incorpo­rates many of the strengths of each while avoiding many of the weaknesses, and to give some flavor of the philosophical assump­tions that underlie self psychology. I have also made an attempt to point to some lacks in self psychology that I believe existential­ humanistic psychology could rectify. I tried to integrate some of the theoretical concepts with the philosophical assumptions, but, be­ cause of the limited scope of the article, was unable to bring in more than some of the very basic concepts, such as the self, the selfobject, empathy, and optimal responsiveness. I want to emphasize that I have discussed these concepts in a very cursory way. There are also a number of other important theoretical and practical aspects of self psychology that I did not even mention: the concept of trans­ mu...

  6. Humanists such as Carl Rogers see people as basically good or healthy -- or at very least, not bad or ill. In other words, they see mental health as the normal progression of life, and mental illness, criminality, and other human problems, as distortions of that natural tendency, which Rogers called self-actualization. Unlike Maslow, Rogers ...

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