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    Who was the leader of the Calvinists in Germany?

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  2. Graf von Tilly | Encyclopedia.com

    www.encyclopedia.com/.../graf-von-tilly
    • Led Catholic League Army
    • Controlled Palatinate
    • Allied with Wallenstein
    • Battle of Breitenfeld
    • Further Reading

    At that time, Maximilian I, the Duke of Bavaria, invited him to head the newly-formed army of the Catholic League. The core of the new force was the Bavarian Army, which Maximilian had worked to strengthen. For the next ten years, Tilly polished his troops to create one of the most powerful and efficient forces in the region. The League was first tested in 1620, when the new emperor, Ferdinand II, went to war against his Bohemian subjects, who were aided by unhappy Austrian nobles. Maximilian was willing to ally himself and commit his forces in return for his share of the spoils, namely the territories of the Elector Palatine, Frederick, who had sided with the Bohemians. Tilly was very successful in this, the first major campaign of the Thirty Years' War. The 25,000 members of his Catholic League moved into Bavaria in July. A month later, the Austrian rebels were forced into surrendering at Linz. He outflanked an army of Bohemians and Hungarians in September and October, then joined...

    In 1622, Tilly met the Palatinate army, under the command of Mansfield, at the battle of Mingolsheim. Although he lost that battle, Tilly joined with a Spanish army under Gonzales de Cordoba and was victorious over the rebel Protestant forces under Georg Frederick at Wimpfen on May 6. Moving northward, Tilly beat Christian of Brunswick at Hochst on June 20, catching the rebel army as it tried to cross the river Main. After this battle, Tilly was made a count. He now had control of the Palatinate. Tilly took the city of Heidelberg on September 19, 1622, after an eleven-week siege that laid waste to the town. The following year, on August 6, he devastated the last important German army, when he once again defeated Christian of Brunswick, at Stadtlohn near the Netherlands border. Christian's army of 12,000 troops suffered 10,000 casualties. All of northwest Germany was now under Tilly's command. His success in this period has to be credited to the years he spent preparing his troops. T...

    Responding to the Danes' entrance into the war in 1625, Tilly found himself allied with the mercenary army of Emperor Ferdinand II, commanded by Albrecht von Wallenstein. While Tilly was loyal to Maximilian and the Catholic League, Wallenstein was an adventurer and mercenary who always kept his own ends in mind. The two armies worked well together. After Tilly's experienced soldiers routed King Christian IVof Denmark at Lutter in late August 1626, Tilly and Wallenstein forced the Danes back across their own borders the following year. But the princes in Germany grew wary of Wallenstein's ambition. In return for supporting the emperor, they demanded that Wallenstein be removed from his post. Although there was some opposition to putting a seventy-one year old man in charge of sucha large army, Tilly was given the command of Wallenstein's army, while retaining his command of the Catholic League forces. Tilly did not want the combined command, not out of any respect for the departed Wa...

    Tilly had hoped to stay within the walls of Leipzig. However, Pappenheim committed the Catholic League forces to battle with the Swedes and Saxons at Breitenfeld, about four miles north of Leipzig. The flanking maneuver employed by Pappenheim had little affect on the Swedes linear formation. Tilly had better success over the Saxon army, then turned to attack the exposed left flank of the Swedish army. In previous years, it would have been an easy, overpowering victory. But a number of factors worked against Tilly that day. He could not overcome bad decisions made by Pappenheim early in the battle. The sheer number of the combined armies of Sweden and Saxony—some estimates put them at near 42,000 troops—outnumbered the Catholic forces by many thousand and overwhelmed Tilly's experienced but weary troops. Most importantly, the flexibility and creative tactics of the Swedes continued to befuddle Tilly. Although the Catholic forces held their ground for seven hours of skillful and relen...

    Dupuy, Trevor N., Curt Johnson, and David L. Bongard, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography,HarperCollins, 1992. Keegan, John, and Andrew Wheatcroft, Who's Who in Military History,Hutchinson, 1987. Windrow, Martin and Francis K. Mason The Concise Dictionary of Military BiographyRevised Edition, Windrow and Greene, 1990. □

  3. Johann Tserclaes, Graf von Tilly - YOURDICTIONARY

    biography.yourdictionary.com/johann-tserclaes...
    • Led Catholic League Army
    • Controlled Palatinate
    • Allied with Wallenstein
    • Battle of Breitenfeld
    • Further Reading on Graf Von Tilly

    At that time, Maximilian I, the Duke of Bavaria, invited him to head the newly-formed army of the Catholic League. The core of the new force was the Bavarian Army, which Maximilian had worked to strengthen. For the next ten years, Tilly polished his troops to create one of the most powerful and efficient forces in the region. The League was first tested in 1620, when the new emperor, Ferdinand II, went to war against his Bohemian subjects, who were aided by unhappy Austrian nobles. Maximilian was willing to ally himself and commit his forces in return for his share of the spoils, namely the territories of the Elector Palatine, Frederick, who had sided with the Bohemians. Tilly was very successful in this, the first major campaign of the Thirty Years' War. The 25,000 members of his Catholic League moved into Bavaria in July. A month later, the Austrian rebels were forced into surrendering at Linz. He outflanked an army of Bohemians and Hungarians in September and October, then joined...

    In 1622, Tilly met the Palatinate army, under the command of Mansfield, at the battle of Mingolsheim. Although he lost that battle, Tilly joined with a Spanish army under Gonzales de Cordoba and was victorious over the rebel Protestant forces under Georg Frederick at Wimpfen on May 6. Moving northward, Tilly beat Christian of Brunswick at Hochst on June 20, catching the rebel army as it tried to cross the river Main. After this battle, Tilly was made a count. He now had control of the Palatinate. Tilly took the city of Heidelberg on September 19, 1622, after an eleven-week siege that laid waste to the town. The following year, on August 6, he devastated the last important German army, when he once again defeated Christian of Brunswick, at Stadtlohn near the Netherlands border. Christian's army of 12,000 troops suffered 10,000 casualties. All of northwest Germany was now under Tilly's command. His success in this period has to be credited to the years he spent preparing his troops. T...

    Responding to the Danes' entrance into the war in 1625, Tilly found himself allied with the mercenary army of Emperor Ferdinand II, commanded by Albrecht von Wallenstein. While Tilly was loyal to Maximilian and the Catholic League, Wallenstein was an adventurer and mercenary who always kept his own ends in mind. The two armies worked well together. After Tilly's experienced soldiers routed King Christian IV of Denmark at Lutter in late August 1626, Tilly and Wallenstein forced the Danes back across their own borders the following year. But the princes in Germany grew wary of Wallenstein's ambition. In return for supporting the emperor, they demanded that Wallenstein be removed from his post. Although there was some opposition to putting a seventy-one year old man in charge of sucha large army, Tilly was given the command of Wallenstein's army, while retaining his command of the Catholic League forces. Tilly did not want the combined command, not out of any respect for the departed W...

    Tilly had hoped to stay within the walls of Leipzig. However, Pappenheim committed the Catholic League forces to battle with the Swedes and Saxons at Breitenfeld, about four miles north of Leipzig. The flanking maneuver employed by Pappenheim had little affect on the Swedes linear formation. Tilly had better success over the Saxon army, then turned to attack the exposed left flank of the Swedish army. In previous years, it would have been an easy, overpowering victory. But a number of factors worked against Tilly that day. He could not overcome bad decisions made by Pappenheim early in the battle. The sheer number of the combined armies of Sweden and Saxony—some estimates put them at near 42,000 troops—outnumbered the Catholic forces by many thousand and overwhelmed Tilly's experienced but weary troops. Most importantly, the flexibility and creative tactics of the Swedes continued to befuddle Tilly. Although the Catholic forces held their ground for seven hours of skillful and relen...

    Dupuy, Trevor N., Curt Johnson, and David L. Bongard, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography,HarperCollins, 1992. Keegan, John, and Andrew Wheatcroft, Who's Who in Military History,Hutchinson, 1987. Windrow, Martin and Francis K. Mason The Concise Dictionary of Military BiographyRevised Edition, Windrow and Greene, 1990.

  4. Germany: The Edict of Restitution (1629) | CosmoLearning History

    cosmolearning.org/images/germany-the-edict-of...

    " THE FIRST DECADE OF THE WAR "In August 1619 the Estates of Bohemia deposed Ferdinand II, who had officially succeeded Emperor Matthias as king of Bohemia in March, and elected Frederick V, elector palatine, the leader of the Calvinists in Germany, in his stead. However, Frederick’s rule was short lived.

  5. Thirty Years War | Encyclopedia.com

    www.encyclopedia.com/.../thirty-years-war
    • The Causes of The War
    • The First Decade of The War
    • from Catholic and Triumph to Abortive Compromise, 1629–1635
    • The Last Phase of The War and The Road to Settlement
    • The Nature and Impact of Warfare
    • Bibliography

    For the outbreak of the war the deepening crisis of the Holy Roman Empire was of crucial importance. The crisis had a constitutional and political as well as a religious dimension. The emperor's prerogatives had never been clearly defined; a ruler who knew how to exploit his considerable informal powers of patronage could enjoy a great deal of authority, but a weak monarch could easily be reduced to a mere figurehead. This was very much Rudolf II's (ruled 1576–1612) fate during the last decad...

    In August 1619 the Estates of Bohemia deposed Ferdinand II, who had officially succeeded Emperor Matthias as king of Bohemia in March, and elected Frederick V, elector palatine, the leader of the Calvinists in Germany, in his stead. However, Frederick's rule was short lived. In November 1620 his army suffered a crushing defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain near Prague against the emperor's army, which had been reinforced by troops from the Bavarian-led Catholic League and by Spanish reg...

    At this stage, however, the Habsburg ascendancy in Europe, successfully reasserted in the early 1620s, was seriously challenged by France and Sweden. In 1628 La Rochelle, the stronghold of the French Huguenots, had been taken by a royal army led by Louis XIII and the prime minister, Cardinal Richelieu, in person. France was now free to intervene in central Europe. Initially, however, French troops confronted Spain only in Italy (the War of the Mantuan Succession, 1628–1631). Here they defied...

    France was now faced by the prospect of a Spanish offensive supported by the emperor's army against the garrisons it had placed beyond its frontiers, in Lorraine, Alsace, and along the upper Rhine and Moselle rivers in the preceding years. In answer to an attack on the prince-bishop of Trier, who had become a French ally and client in 1632, Louis XIII declared war on Spain in May 1635. With the emperor's own declaration of war on France in March 1636, the war in Germany had, it seemed, finall...

    Most countries—the Dutch Republic, which benefited from a flourishing economy in the midst of military conflict, was probably one of the few exceptions—waged war between 1618 and 1648 with financial resources that were grossly inadequate. Some countries such as Sweden nevertheless managed to finance their armies for long periods of time primarily out of contributions raised in areas under military occupation. Others tried, with limited success, to rely on taxation. France, for example, manage...

    Briefe und Akten zur Geschichte des Dreißigjährigen Krieges, Neue Folge, Die Politik Maximilians von Baiern und seiner Verbündeten 1618–1651. Part I, vol. I and II, edited by G. Franz and A. Duch; Part II, vol. I–X, edited by W. Goetz, D. Albrecht and K. Bierther. Leipzig, Munich, and Vienna, 1907–1997. Important edition of sources based mainly on the records of the Bavarian state archive in Munich; latest volumes so far deal with Peace of Prague (1635).Documenta Bohemica Bellum Tricennale Il...

  6. Tilly, Graf von - Biography

    www.swiftpapers.com/biographies/Tilly-Graf-von...

    Led Catholic League Army At that time, Maximilian I, the Duke of Bavaria, invited him to head the newly-formed army of the Catholic League. The core of the new force was the Bavarian Army, which Maximilian had worked to strengthen.

  7. Thirty Years' War - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirty_Years'_War

    The Thirty Years' War (German: Dreißigjähriger Krieg, pronounced [ˈdʁaɪ̯sɪçˌjɛːʁɪɡɐ kʁiːk] ) was a conflict fought in modern Germany and Central Europe from 1618 to 1648. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation.

  8. “Causes of Wars,” Concepts (ISIS Compared to Christianity ...

    religiopoliticaltalk.com/causes-of-wars-concepts...

    Oct 01, 2014 · In May 1588, the Guise-led Catholic League took Paris from the royal troops, and Henry III fled the city. In December of that year, Henry III had the duke and cardinal of Guise killed and made a pact with the Protestant Henry of Navarre to make war on the Catholic League. Henry III was assassinated in August 1589 by a Jacobin monk.

  9. The Revolution fulfilled - A Germany Divergences of Darkness ...

    forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/threads/the...

    Oct 25, 2016 · The aim of the Revolution was to end the feudal structure of German society, and the dominance of the Bohemian led catholic block*** and the institutions behind it, namely the Holy Roman Empire. Although it started with a social goal the Revolution soon acquired a nationalist fervor as intellectuals and politicians alike advocated for a unified ...

  10. France–Germany relations - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franco-German_reconciliation

    The success of the Locarno agreements Led to the admission of Germany to the League of Nations. In September 1926, with a seat on its counsel as a permanent member. The result was the euphoric "Spirit of Locarno" across Europe—a sense that it was possible to achieve peace and a permanent system of guaranteeing that peace.

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