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  1. Nov 19, 2010 · Frederick Barbarossa was a ruler of the Holy Roman empire in the 1100s. In 1158 Frederick claimed supremecy of Rome and a year later waged war on Rome, forcing newly elected pope Alexander III to flee to sens. He then journeyed to Italy and destroyed Milan. In 1165 the antipope, victor V, who Frederick supported died.

  2. Operation Barbarossa (1941) Summary - German Invasion of USSR

    Officially, this was known as Directive 21, but it quickly became more widely known by its code name of Barbarossa, named after the 12th century Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa. From the start, the plan was for German police and military units to fight a two-pronged war of destruction.

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    In var­i­ous lan­guages the Holy Roman Em­pire was known as: Latin: Sa­crum Ro­ma­num Imperium, Ger­man: Hei­li­ges Rö­mi­sches Reich, Ital­ian: Sacro Ro­ma­no Impero (be­fore Otto I), Ital­ian: Sacro Ro­ma­no Im­pe­ro Germanico (by Otto I), Czech: Svatá říše římská, Slovene: Sveto rim­sko cesarstvo, Dutch: Hei­li­ge Room­se Rijk, French: Saint-Em­pire romain (be­fore Otto I), French: Saint-Em­pire ro­main germanique (by Otto I). Be­fore 1157, the realm was merely re­ferred to as the Roman Empire. The term sacrum ("holy", in the sense of "con­se­crated") in con­nec­tion with the me­dieval Roman Em­pire was used be­gin­ning in 1157 under Fred­er­ick I Bar­barossa ("Holy Empire"): the term was added to re­flect Fred­er­ick's am­bi­tion to dom­i­nate Italy and the Papacy.The form "Holy Roman Em­pire" is at­tested from 1254 onward. In a de­cree fol­low­ing the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to the Holy Roman Em­pire of the Ger­man Nation (Ger­man: Hei­li­ges Rö­mi­sches Reic...

    Holy Roman Empire under Hohenstaufen dynasty

    When the Salian dy­nasty ended with Henry V's death in 1125, the princes chose not to elect the next of kin, but rather Lothair, the mod­er­ately pow­er­ful but al­ready old Duke of Sax­ony. When he died in 1137, the princes again aimed to check royal power; ac­cord­ingly they did not elect Lothair's favoured heir, his son-in-law Henry the Proud of the Welf fam­ily, but Con­rad III of the Ho­hen­staufen fam­ily, the grand­son of Em­peror Henry IV and thus a nephew of Em­peror Henry V. This le...

    The Holy Roman Em­pire was not a highly cen­tral­ized state like most coun­tries today. In­stead, it was di­vided into dozens – even­tu­ally hun­dreds – of in­di­vid­ual en­ti­ties gov­erned by kings, dukes, counts, bish­ops, ab­bots, and other rulers, col­lec­tively known as princes. There were also some areas ruled di­rectly by the Em­peror. At no time could the Em­peror sim­ply issue de­crees and gov­ern au­tonomously over the Em­pire. His power was se­verely re­stricted by the var­i­ous local lead­ers. From the High Mid­dle Ages on­wards, the Holy Roman Em­pire was marked by an un­easy co­ex­is­tence of the princes of the local ter­ri­to­ries who were strug­gling to take power away from it. To a greater ex­tent than in other me­dieval king­doms such as France and Eng­land, the Em­per­ors were un­able to gain much con­trol over the lands that they for­mally owned. In­stead, to se­cure their own po­si­tion from the threat of being de­posed, Em­per­ors were forced to grant more and...

    Largest cities

    Largest cities or towns of the Em­pire by year: 1. 1050: Regensburg 40,000 people. Rome 35,000. Mainz 30,000. Speyer 25,000. Cologne 21,000. Trier 20,000. Worms 20,000. Lyon 20,000. Verona 20,000. Florence15,000. 2. 1300–1350: Prague 77,000 people. Cologne 54,000 people. Aachen 21,000 people. Magdeburg 20,000 people. Nuremberg 20,000 people. Vienna 20,000 people. Danzig (now Gdańsk) 20,000 people. Straßburg (now Strasbourg) 20,000 people. Lübeck 15,000 people. Regensburg11,000 people. 3. 1500...


    Roman Catholi­cism con­sti­tuted the sin­gle of­fi­cial re­li­gion of the Em­pire until 1555. The Holy Roman Em­perorwas al­ways a Roman Catholic. Lutheranism was of­fi­cially rec­og­nized in the Peace of Augs­burg of 1555, and Calvin­ism in the Peace of West­phalia of 1648. Those two con­sti­tuted the only of­fi­cially rec­og­nized Protes­tant de­nom­i­na­tions, while var­i­ous other Protes­tant con­fes­sions such as An­abap­tism, Armini­an­ism, etc. co­ex­isted il­le­gally within the Em­pir...

    Arnold, Benjamin, Princes and Territories in Medieval Germany. (Cambridge University Press, 1991)
    Bryce, James, The Holy Roman Empire (1864) online, very old scholarly survey
    Coy, Jason Philip et al. The Holy Roman Empire, Reconsidered, (Berghahn Books, 2010)
    Donaldson, George. Germany: A Complete History(Gotham Books, New York, 1985)
  3. Barbarosa

    Frederick I Barbarossa was born in 1122 to Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, and his wife Judith. Barbarossa's parents were members of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and House of Welf, respectively. This provided him with strong family and dynastic ties that would aid him later in life. Biography of Frederick I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor

  4. Frederick I, also called Frederick Barbarossa, was crowned Emperor in 1155. He emphasized the "Romanness" of the empire, partly in an attempt to justify the power of the Emperor independent of the (now strengthened) Pope.

  5. The term sacrum ("holy", in the sense of "consecrated") in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa ("Holy Empire"): the term was added to reflect Frederick's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy. [22]

  6. The Myth of the Mountain King – Nick Louras

    Apr 20, 2018 · The king in the mountain is one of the great archetypal myths: a king who presided over a past golden age is said to have retreated with his warriors into a mountain cave where he waits, sleeping but not dead, one day to return. It is often associated with King Arthur, Charlemagne, Frederick Barbarossa, or Frederick II.

  7. HIST 111 Medieval History UMD Final |

    Oct 13, 2020 · Who: Frederick I “Barbarossa” (Red Beard) (r. 1155 – 1190), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, and king of Germany, conquered the Italian lands in 1154 – 1155. Crowned by Pope Adrian IV as Holy Roman Emperor.

  8. Myth and Modernity Part 1: Political Myth and Nationalism

    Feb 03, 2013 · Like Frederick Barbarossa Joan became a national myth – a myth with two souls, one left one right, but in the end uniting the country nonetheless. Compared to Frederick Barbarossa the ideal of unity might not be as strong but Joan of Arc’s popularity was extraordinary and lasted longer than that of the old “Kaiser”.

  9. Frederick III, German Emperor - Wikipedia,_German_Emperor

    Frederick III (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl; 18 October 1831 – 15 June 1888) was German Emperor and King of Prussia for ninety-nine days in 1888, the Year of the Three Emperors. Known informally as "Fritz", he was the only son of Emperor Wilhelm I and was raised in his family's tradition of military service.

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