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    • When was Larissa incorporated into the Greek Empire?

      • Larissa was the headquarters of Hursid Pasha during the Greek War of Independence. In 1881, the city, along with the rest of Thessaly, was incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece. A considerable portion of the Turkish population emigrated into the Ottoman Empire at that point.
  1. Larissa was the headquarters of Ali Pasha during the Greek War of Independence, and of the crown prince Constantine during the Greco-Turkish War; the flight of the Greek army from this place to Pharsala took place on the 23rd of April 1897.

  2. Larissa was the headquarters of Hursid Pasha during the Greek War of Independence. In 1881, the city, along with the rest of Thessaly, was incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece. A considerable portion of the Turkish population emigrated into the Ottoman Empire at that point.

  3. The city of Athens (Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai [a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯]; Modern Greek: Αθήναι Athine [a.ˈθ̞] or, more commonly and in singular, Αθήνα Athina [a.'θ]) during the classical period of ancient Greece (480–323 BC) was the major urban centre of the notable polis of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian ...

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    When was Larissa incorporated into the Greek Empire?

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    Who was the leader of Athens during the Delian League?

    • Etymology
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    The word "democracy" (Greek: dēmokratia, δημοκρατία) combines the elements dêmos (δῆμος, which means "people") and krátos (κράτος, which means "force" or "power"), and thus means literally "people power". In the words "monarchy" and "oligarchy", the second element comes from archē (ἀρχή), meaning "beginning (that which comes first)", and hence also "first place or power", "sovereignty". One might expect, by analogy, that the term "demarchy" would have been adopted for the new form of government introduced by Athenian democrats. However, the word "demarchy" (δημαρχία) had already been taken and meant "mayoralty", the office or rank of a high municipal magistrate. (In present-day use, the term "demarchy" has acquired a new meaning.) It is unknown whether the word "democracy" was in existence when systems that came to be called democratic were first instituted. The first conceptual articulation of the term is generally accepted to be c. 470 BC with Aeschylus' The Suppliants (l. 604) wi...


    Athens was never the only polis in Ancient Greece that instituted a democratic regime. Aristotlepoints to other cities that adopted governments in the democratic style. However, accounts of the rise of democratic institutions are in reference to Athens, since only this city-state had sufficient historical records to speculate on the rise and nature of Greek democracy. Before the first attempt at democratic government, Athens was ruled by a series of archons or chief magistrates, and the Areop...


    Philip II had led a coalition of the Greek states to war with Persia in 336 BC, but his Greek soldiers were hostages for the behavior of their states as much as allies. Alexander The Great's relations with Athens later strained when he returned to Babylonin 324 BC; after his death, Athens and Sparta led several states to war with Macedonia and lost. This led to the Hellenistic control of Athens, with the Macedonian king appointing a local agent as political governor in Athens. However, the go...

    Size and make-up of the Athenian population

    Estimates of the population of ancient Athens vary. During the 4th century BC, there might well have been some 250,000–300,000 people in Attica. Citizen families could have amounted to 100,000 people and out of these some 30,000 would have been the adult male citizens entitled to vote in the assembly. In the mid-5th century the number of adult male citizens was perhaps as high as 60,000, but this number fell precipitously during the Peloponnesian War. This slump was permanent, due to the intr...

    Citizenship in Athens

    Only adult male Athenian citizens who had completed their military training as ephebes had the right to vote in Athens. The percentage of the population that actually participated in the government was 10% to 20% of the total number of inhabitants, but this varied from the fifth to the fourth century BC. This excluded a majority of the population: slaves, freed slaves, children, women and metics (foreign residents in Athens).The women had limited rights and privileges, had restricted movement...

    Women in Athens

    With participation in Athenian Democracy was only being available to adult male Athenian citizens, women were left out of government and public roles. Even in the case of citizenry, the term was rarely used in reference to women. Rather, women were often referred to as an astē which meant ‘a woman belonging to the city’ or Attikē gunē which meant ‘an Attic woman/wife’. Even the term Athenian was largely reserved for just male citizens.Before Pericles’ law that decreed citizenship to be restri...

    Throughout its history, Athens had many different constitutions under its different leaders. Some of the history of Athens’ reforms as well a collection of constitutions from other Ancient Greek city-states was compiled and synthesized into a large all-encompassing constitution created by either Aristotle or one of his students called the Constitution of the Athenians. The Constitution of the Atheniansprovides a run-down of the structure of Athens' government and its processes. There were three political bodies where citizens gathered in numbers running into the hundreds or thousands. These are the assembly (in some cases with a quorum of 6000), the council of 500 (boule), and the courts (a minimum of 200 people, on some occasions up to 6,000). Of these three bodies, the assembly and the courts were the true sites of power – although courts, unlike the assembly, were never simply called the demos('the people'), as they were manned by just those citizens over thirty. Crucially, citiz...

    Athenian democracy has had many critics, both ancient and modern. Ancient Greek critics of Athenian democracy include Thucydides the general and historian, Aristophanes the playwright, Plato the pupil of Socrates, Aristotle the pupil of Plato, and a writer known as the Old Oligarch. While modern critics are more likely to find fault with the restrictive qualifications for political involvement, these ancients viewed democracy as being too inclusive. For them, the common people were not necessarily the right people to rule and were likely to make huge mistakes.According to Samons: Thucydides, from his aristocratic and historical viewpoint, reasoned that a serious flaw in democratic government was that the common people were often much too credulous about even contemporary facts to rule justly, in contrast to his own critical-historical approach to history. For example, he points to errors regarding Sparta; Athenians erroneously believed that Sparta's kings each had two votes in their...

    Since the middle of the 20th century, most countries have claimed to be democratic, regardless of the actual composition of their governments. Yet after the demise of Athenian democracy few looked upon it as a good form of government. No legitimation of that rule was formulated to counter the negative accounts of Plato and Aristotle, who saw it as the rule of the poor, who plundered the rich. Democracy came to be viewed as a "collective tyranny". "Well into the 18th century democracy was consistently condemned." Sometimes, mixed constitutions evolved with democratic elements, but "it definitely did not mean self-rule by citizens". It would be misleading to say that the tradition of Athenian democracy was an important part of the 18th-century revolutionaries' intellectual background. The classical example that inspired the American and French revolutionaries, as well as English radicals, was Rome rather than Greece, and, in the age of Cicero and Caesar, Rome was a republic but not a...


    1. Habicht, Christian (1997). Athens from Alexander to Antony. Harvard. ISBN 0-674-05111-4. 2. Hansen, M.H. (1987). The Athenian Democracy in the age of Demosthenes. Oxford. ISBN 978-0-8061-3143-6. 3. Hignett, Charles (1962). A History of the Athenian Constitution. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-814213-7. 4. Manville, B.; Ober, Josiah (2003). A company of citizens : what the world's first democracy teaches leaders about creating great organizations. Boston. 5. Meier C. 1998, Athens: a portrait of the city...

    Ewbank, N. The Nature of Athenian Democracy, Clio History Journal, 2009.
  5. “An abridged list of rulers for the ancient Greek world concentrating on the Hellenistic age (323–31 B.C.), after the time of Alexander the Great. In the preceding centuries, Greek city-states were governed by a variety of entities, including kings, oligarchies, tyrants, and, as in the case of Athens, a democracy.”

  6. 594 BCE - 593 BCE. In Athens the archon Solon lays the foundations for democracy. c. 560 BCE. Pisistratos becomes tyrant in Athens for the first time. c. 546 BCE. Pisistratus lands his Argive mercenary force at Marathon and with victory at Pallene establishes himself once again as tyrant of Athens . c. 540 BCE.

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