Who is the founder of the Islamic religion?
- Unlike the names of some other religions, Islam is not named after any founder. Despite concerns about the reliability of early sources, most historians believe that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE, approximately 600 years after the founding of Christianity.
In power in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia and further east, over the rest of the 13th century gradually all converted to Islam. Most Ilkhanid rulers were replaced by the new Mongol power founded by Timur (himself a Muslim), who conquered Persia in the 1360s, and moved against the Delhi Sultanate in India and the Ottoman Turks in Anatolia.
610. Muhammad receives his first revelation on Mount Hira. 622. Muhammad undertakes the Hegira (Hijra), the migration from Mecca to Medina, establishing the start of the Islamic calendar. 624. Battle of Badr: Muhammad 's forces win, resulting in a turning point for Islam against the ruling Quraysh tribe. 625.
In 1521, Kuwait was under Portuguese control. In the late 16th century, the Portuguese built a defensive settlement in Kuwait. In 1613, Kuwait City was founded as a fishing village predominantly populated by fishermen. Administratively, it was a sheikhdom, ruled by local sheikhs from Bani Khalid clan.
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- A Note on Islam
- Geographical Spread
- Reasons For Adoption
- Accommodating Ancient African Beliefs
- Cultural Impact
It is perhaps worth noting at the start that the spread of Islam in Africa was much more than the passing on and adoption of religious ideas. As the UNESCO General History of Africasummarises, unlike many other faiths: It is thus perhaps more comprehensible, given the above, why so many African rulers and elites were ready to adopt a foreign religion when it also brought with it definite advantages of governance and wealth.
Islam spread from the Middle East to take hold across North Africa during the second half of the 7th century CE when the Umayyad Caliphate (661-750 CE) of Damascus conquered that area by military force. From there, it spread via Islamized Berbers (who had been variously coerced or enticed to convert) in the 8th century CE along the trade routes which crisscrossed West Africa, moving from the east coast into the interior of central Africa, finally reaching Lake Chad. Meanwhile, the religion also spread down through Egypt and swung westwards through the Sudan region below the Sahara Desert. A third wave brought the religion to Africa's eastern shores, the Horn of Africa and the Swahili Coast, directly from Arabiaand the Persian Gulf. Once the religion had reached the savannah region which spreads across Africa below the Sahara Desert, it was adopted by ruling African elites, although very often indigenous beliefs and rituals continued to be practised or were even blended with the new...
Aside from genuine spiritual conviction, African leaders may have recognised that adopting Islam (or seeming to) or at the least tolerating it would be beneficial to trade. The two spheres of Islam and trade are closely intertwined, as here explained in the UNESCO General History of Africa: However, in the GhanaEmpire, for example, there is no evidence that kings themselves converted to Islam, rather, they tolerated Muslim merchants and those from Ghana who wished to convert. Ghana's capital at Koumbi Saleh was, significantly, divided into two distinct towns from the mid-11th century CE. One town was Muslim and boasted 12 mosques while the other, just 10 km away and joined by many intermediate buildings, was the royal residence with many traditional cult shrines and one mosque for visiting merchants. This division reflected the continuance of indigenous animist beliefs alongside Islam, the former being practised by rural communities. In contrast, in the Mali Empire, the kings did co...
As noted, ancient indigenous beliefs continued to be practised, especially in rural communities, as recorded by travellers like Ibn Battutawho visited Mali c. 1352 CE. In addition, Islamic studies were, at least initially, conducted in Arabic, not native languages, and this further impeded its popularity outside the educated clerical class of towns and cities. Even the Islam that did take hold was a particular variation of that practised in the Arab world, perhaps because African rulers could not afford to completely dismiss the indigenous religious practices and beliefs that the majority of their people still clung onto and which very often elevated rulers to divine or semi-divine status. Even on the Swahili Coast, which adopted Islam with perhaps more success than anywhere else, many converts continued the practice of appeasing spirits who brought illness and other misfortunes. Ancestors continued to be worshipped, in some cities womenenjoyed better rights than they did under stri...
Islam had profound effects on all aspects of daily life and society but these did vary over time and place. The coming of Islam saw a general decline in the status of certain groups in ancient African communities. One of the chief losers were the metalworkers who had always enjoyed a mystical reverence from ordinary people because of their skills in forging metal. The same applies to those who found and mined such precious metals as gold and iron. In contrast, an association with Islam sometimes brought a certain prestige, a point seen most clearly in the re-recording of community histories and foundation myths to include the arrival of a founder from the East. It is also true that in some cases oral traditions maintained their cultural integrity, and thus we are presented with a parallel history such as seen in the biographies of Sundiata Keita(r. 1230-1255 CE), the founder of the Mali Empire, who in written history converted to Islam but in oral tradition was a great magician of t...
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Inheritism is the belief that if any one person has all of the following characteristics, he or she is eligible to take power in the government: A strong backing of the majority of the people (60%+) Confidence and ability to make quick, rational decisions upon short notice. Extended knowledge of society, politics and economics. Each "high roller", as they are called, spends a year in term or ...
Sep 14, 2006 · This blogpage is dedicated to culture, history and daily life of Khakas Turks, who have the heroic foretime, bravery ancestors, reality-based philosophy and live in Southern Siberian Altai-Sayan Mountains and Khakas-Minusinsk [Bengu Suu/eternal water]Valley region since ancient times, within of which the Ienissei Kyrgyz Khanate has distinguished place.