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Feb 09, 2010 · The increasing revolutionary uproar convinced the king and queen to attempt an escape to Austria in 1791, but they were captured by revolutionary forces and carried back to Paris. In 1792, the...
Because by the time the Republic was proclaimed (September 1792), the Revolution was out of control and sinking into Terror. Revolutionary leaders deemed death to be ...
- Early Life and Marriage to Louis XVI
- Life as Queen
- Marie Antoinette and The French Revolution
Marie Antoinette was born in Austria, the 15th of 16 children born to Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Austrian Empress Maria Theresa. She was born on the same day as the famous earthquake of Lisbon. From birth, she lived the life of wealthy royalty, educated by private tutors in music and languages. As with most royal daughters, Marie Antoinette was promised in marriage in order to build a diplomatic alliance between her birth family and the family of her husband. Her sister Maria Carolina was married to Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, for similar reasons. In 1770 at age 14, Marie Antoinette married the French dauphin Louis, grandson of Louis XV of France. He ascended the throne in 1774 as Louis XVI.
Marie Antoinette was welcomed in France at first. Her charisma and lightness contrasted with the withdrawn and uninspiring personality of her husband. After her mother died in 1780, she became more extravagant, which led to growing resentment. The French were also suspicious of her ties to Austria and her influence on King Louis XVI in attempting to foster policies friendly to Austria. Marie Antoinette, formerly welcomed, became vilified for her spending habits and her opposition to reforms. The 1785–1786 Affair of the Diamond Necklace further discredited her and reflected poorly on the monarchy. In this scandal, she was accused of having an affair with a cardinal in order to obtain a costly diamond necklace. After an initial slow start at the expected role of child-bearer—her husband apparently had to be coached in his role in this—Marie Antoinette gave birth to her first child, a daughter, in 1778, and sons in 1781 and 1785. By most accounts, she was a devoted mother. Paintings of...
After the Bastille was stormed on July 14, 1789, the queen urged the king to resist the Assembly's reforms, making her even more unpopular and leading to the unproven attribution to her of the remark, "Qu'ils mangent de la brioche!"— often translated as "Let them eat cake!" The phrase was actually first seen in print in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "The Confessions," written before Marie Antoinette was queen. In October 1789, the royal couple was forced to move from Versailles to Paris. Two years later, the attempted escape of the royal couple from Paris was stopped at Varennes on October 21, 1791. This failed escape was reportedly planned by Marie Antoinette. Imprisoned with the king, Marie Antoinette continued to plot. She hoped for foreign intervention to end the revolution and free the royal family. She urged her brother, the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, to intervene, and she supported a French declaration of war against Austria in April 1792, which she hoped would result in the de...
Louis XVI was executed in January 1793, and Marie Antoinette was executed by the guillotine on October 16 of that year. She was charged with aiding the enemy and inciting civil war.
The role Marie Antoinette played in French governmental affairs, both domestic and foreign, was likely greatly exaggerated. She was particularly disappointing to her brother, the Holy Roman Emperor, for her inability to further Austrian interests in France. Her lavish spending, furthermore, did not significantly contribute to France's economic troubles before the revolution. Marie Antoinette, however, remains an enduring symbol, around the world and across history, of the extravagance of monarchy and aristocracy—against which revolutionaries define their ideals.Castelot, André. Queen of France: A Biography of Marie Antoinette.Harper Collins, 1957.Fraser, Antonia. Marie Antoinette: The Journey. Anchor Books, 2001.Thomas, Chantal The Wicked Queen: The Origins of the Myth of Marie-Antoinette. Zone Books, 1999.
Oct 06, 2019 · On October 16, 1793, at four-thirty in the morning, Marie Antoinette was declared guilty of the three main charges of having secret agreements with foreign powers, of shipping money aboard to Austria, and of conspiring with these powers against the security of French. After ten weeks in the Conciergerie, the Queen’s incarceration came to an end.
- Life at The Conciergerie
- The Years Preceding Marie Antoinette’s Death
- The Monarchy and Revolution
- The Death of Marie Antoinette
Tucked away in its cavernous halls, Marie Antoinette’s life at the Conciergerie couldn’t have been more divorced from her life of luxury in Versailles. Formerly the seat of power for the French monarchy in the Middle Ages, the imposing Gothic palace lorded over the Île de la Cité in the center of Paris as part administrative center, part prison during the reign of the Bourbons (her husband’s dynasty). The final 11 weeks of her life were spent in a humble cell at the Conciergerie, much of which she likely spent reflecting on the turns her life — and France — took to bring her from the top of the world to the guillotine’s blade. Marie Antoinette wasn’t even French. Born Maria Antonia in 1755 Vienna to Empress Maria of Austria, the young princess was chosen to marry the dauphin of France, Louis Auguste, when her sister was found an unsuitable match. In preparation to join the more formal French court, a tutor instructed young Maria Antonia, finding her “more intelligent than has been g...
Marie Antoinette embraced the frivolity that came so naturally to her in a way that stood out even in Versailles. Four years after coming to the heart of French political life, she and her husband became its leaders when they were crowned king and queen in 1774. She was only 18, and was frustrated by her and her husband’s polar opposite personalities. “My tastes are not the same as the King’s, who is only interested in hunting and his metal-working,” she wrote to a friend in 1775. Marie Antoinette threw herself into the spirit of the French court — gambling, partying, and purchasing. These indulgences earned her the nickname “Madame Déficit,” while the common people of France suffered through a poor economy. Yet, while reckless, she was also known for her good heart in personal matters, adopting several less fortunate children. A lady-in-waiting and close friend even recalled: “She was so happy at doing good and hated to miss any opportunity of doing so.”
However soft her heart was one-on-one, to the underclass of France grew to consider her a scapegoat for all of France’s ills. People called her L’Autrichienne (a play on her Austrian heritage and chienne, the French word for bitch). The “diamond necklace affair”made matters even worse, when a self-styled countess fooled a cardinal into purchasing an exorbitantly expensive necklace on the queen’s behalf — even though the queen had previously refused to buy it. When news got out about the debacle in 1785, and people thought Marie Antoinette had tried to get her hands on a 650-diamond necklace without paying for it, her already shaky reputation was ruined. Inspired by the American Revolution — and the fact that King Louis XVI put France into an economic depression in part by paying to support the Americans — the French people were itching for a revolt. Then came the summer of 1789. Parisians stormed the Bastille prison, freeing political prisoners from the symbol of Ancien Régime power...
In January 1793, King Louis XVI was sentenced to death for conspiring against the state. He was allowed to spend a few short hours with his family until his execution before a crowd of 20,000. Marie Antoinette, meanwhile, was still in limbo. In early August she was transferred from the Temple to the Conciergerie, known as “the antechamber to the guillotine,” and two months later she was put on trial. She was only 37 years old, but her hair had already turned white, and her skin was just as pale. Still, she was subjected to an excruciating 36-hour trial crammed into just two days. Prosecutor Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville aimed to denigrate her character so that any crime she was accused of would seem more plausible. Thus, the trial began with a bombshell: According to Fouquier-Tinville, her eight-year-old son, Louis Charles, claimed to have had sex with his mother and aunt. (In reality, historians believe he made up the story after his jailer caught him masturbating.) Marie Antoi...
The very day and hour that Marie Antoinette was thus released from a life which had been full of bliss and of sorrow, of grandeur and of bitter humiliation, the French won the battle of Wattignies (1793), and the nation thus claimed it had two causes for great rejoicing!
Jan 10, 2011 · In 1793, Marie Antoinette was beheaded, and many people often wonder why this act took place. Before we answer the question of why was Marie Antoinette beheaded, let’s take a quick look at who this woman was and what events could have possibly lead up to the beheading of a once Queen of France.
Mar 15, 2020 · Marie Antoinette is beheaded. Nine months after the execution of her husband, the former King Louis XVI of France, Marie Antoinette follows him to the guillotine. In 1792, the French monarchy was abolished, and Louis and Marie-Antoinette were condemned for treason. How old was Marie Antoinette when she died?
- Marie Antoinette was born an Austrian princess. Born in Vienna, Austria, in 1755, Archduchess Marie Antoinette was the 15th and last child of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and the powerful Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa.
- She was only 14 years old when she married the future Louis XVI. To seal the newfound alliance between longtime enemies Austria and France that had been forged by the Seven Years’ War, the Austrian monarchs offered the hand of their youngest daughter to the heir apparent to the French throne, Dauphin Louis-Auguste.
- It took seven years for the future king and queen to consummate their marriage. Politics literally made strange bedfellows in the case of Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste.
- Marie Antoinette was a teen idol. Unlike during her years as queen, Marie Antoinette captivated the French public in her early years in the country. When the teenager made her initial appearance in the French capital, a crowd of 50,000 Parisians grew so uncontrollable that at least 30 people were trampled to death in the crush.