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  1. 100 kata. Ikrar ketiga Sumpah Pemuda 1928 dengan bunyi, ”Kami putra dan putri Indonesia menjunjung bahasa persatuan, bahasa Indonesia. Undang-Undang Dasar RI 1945 Bab XV (Bendera, Bahasa, dan Lambang Negara, serta Lagu Kebangsaan) Pasal 36 menyatakan bahwa ”Bahasa Negara ialah Bahasa Indonesia”.

  2. The Indonesian Wikipedia ( Indonesian: Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, WBI for short) is the edition of Wikipedia in the Indonesian language. The Indonesian Wikipedia is the fifth-fastest-growing Wikipedia in an Asian language after the Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Turkish language Wikipedias. It ranks 25th in terms of depth among Wikipedias.

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    What is the Indonesian version of Wikipedia?

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  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › IndonesiaIndonesia - Wikipedia

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Coordinates: 5°S 120°E Indonesia, [a] officially the Republic of Indonesia, [b] is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea.

    • Nama
    • Sejarah
    • Geografi
    • Pembahagian Pentadbiran
    • Demografi
    • Politik
    • Ekonomi
    • Sumber Alam
    • Seni Budaya
    • Ketenteraan Dan Polis

    Nama Indonesia berasal dari kata Yunani iaitu Indos (Ἰνδός) dan nesos (νῆσος), yang berarti "Kepulauan India". Nama itu berasal dari abad ke-18, jauh sebelum Indonesia merdeka. Pada tahun 1850, George Windsor Earl, seorang ahli etnologi Inggris, mengusulkan istilah Indunesia—dan, preferensinya, orang Melayu—untuk penduduk "Kepulauan India atau Kepu...

    Di bawah pengaruh agama Hindu dan Buddha, beberapa kerajaan terbentuk di pulau Sumatera dan Jawa pernah mencapai kejayaannya dengan wilayah meliputi negara Malaysia dan pulau Mindanao semasa Majapahit sejak abad ke-7 hingga abad ke-14. Kedatangan pedagang-pedagang Arab dari Gujarat, India kemudian membawa agama Islamyang akhirnya menjadi agama terb...

    Negara Indonesia terletak di antara: 1. Latitud 6º U – 11º S dan Longitud95º T - 141º T 2. Lautan Pasifik dengan Lautan Hindi 3. Benua Asia dengan benua Australia Indonesia mempunyai 18,018 buah pulau yang tersebar di sekitar garisan khatulistiwa dan beriklim tropika. Hanya sekitar 7,000 buah pulau berpenghuni. Lima pulau yang terbesar ialah Pulau ...

    Provinsi

    Indonesia ialah negara yang terluas di Asia Tenggara. Untuk memudahkan pentadbiran, negara ini dibahagikan kepada 34 provinsi (satu Daerah Istimewa (DI), iaitu Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, dua daerah dengan autonomi khusus iaitu Papua dan Papua Barat, dan satu daerah autonomi khusus dan istimewa iaitu Aceh serta satu Daerah Khusus Ibu kota (DKI), iaitu Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Raya. Sebelum era Reformasi, Indonesia hanya memiliki 27 provinsi, dengan Timor Timur merupakan provinsi ke-27 pa...

    Bandar terbesar

    Sepuluh bandar terbesar di Indonesia mengikut susunan, adalah seperti berikut : 1. Jakarta: ibu negara Indonesia, pusat pemerintahan, serta pusat perdagangan 2. Surabaya: ibu kota Jawa Timur, serta kota pelabuhan kedua terbesar 3. Medan: ibu kota Sumatera Utara, serta pusat perdagangan di Sumatera 4. Bandung: ibu kota Jawa Barat, serta pusat pendidikan teknologi Indonesia 5. Palembang: ibu kota Sumatera Selatan yang merupakan pusat pemerintahan kerajaan Srivijayapada satu ketika dahulu 6. Lam...

    Jumlah penduduk Indonesia mengikut bancian tahun 2018 ialah 265.764.970 juta orang, dan Biro Statistik Pusat Indonesia dan Statistik Indonesia mengganggarkan populasi sebanyak 265.764.970 juta pada 2018.Pembahagian penduduk Indonesia ada dalam dua kelompok. Belahan barat Indonesia sebahagian besar beretnik Melayu dan bahagian timur Indonesia beretn...

    Garuda Pancasila adalah falsafah dasar negara Indonesia yang berasal daripada dua kata Sanskrit, "panca" yang bererti 'lima', dan "sila" yang bererti 'dasar'. Pancasila terdiri atas kelima-lima dasar yang amat berkait dan yang tidak dapat dipisahkan: 1. Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan Yang Esa 2. Kemanusiaan yang Adil dan Beradab 3. Perpaduan Indonesia 4....

    Ekonomi Indonesia mengalami kemerosotan pada akhir dekad 1990-an, akibat Krisis Kewangan Asia yang melanda sebahagian besar Asia pada saat itu. Ekonominya kini telah pulih. Indonesia mempunyai sumber semula jadi yang besar di luar Jawa, termasuk minyak mentah, gas asli, timah, tembaga, dan emas. Negara ini ialah pengeksport gas asli yang kedua terb...

    Getah yang pernah dikenali sebagai "emas hitam" di Indonesia merupakan hasil utama pertukaran asing pada masa dahulu, dan kini merupakan pengeluar kedua terbesar selepas Malaysia. Kelapa sawit: Kawasan perladangan kelapa sawit di Indonesia telah diperluas dengan pesat. Produk utama yang dieksport ialah minyak serta isirong sawit.Tembakau: Kawasan p...

    Indonesia terdiri daripada beratus-ratus suku kaum, dengan agama dan kepercayaan yang berbeza. Antara suku kaumnya termasuk Aceh (Melayu Tamiang dan Gayo),Batak (Karo, Toba, Mandailing, Pak-Pak, dan Simalungun), Minangkabau, Melayu (termasuk Melayu Deli, Melayu Palembang, Melayu Jambi, Melayu Pontianak, Melayu Bengkulu, Melayu Bangka Belitung, dan ...

    Tentera

    1. Tentera Nasional Indonesia 2. Tentera Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Udara 3. Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat 4. Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut 5. Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Indonesia 6. Sejarah Pertahanan Indonesia

    Polis

    1. Polis Negara Indonesia 2. Polis Pamong Praja Indonesia(Satpol PP) (di Aceh dinamakan Wilayatul Hisbah), ialah polis wilayah dibawah naungan Kementerian Dalam Negeri Indonesia

    • Prehistory
    • Hindu-Buddhist Civilizations
    • The Age of Islamic States
    • Colonial Era
    • The Emergence of Indonesia
    • Sukarno's Presidency
    • The New Order
    • Reform Era
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    In 2007, an analysis of cut marks on two bovid bones found in Sangiran, showed them to have been made 1.5 to 1.6 million years ago by clamshell tools. This is the oldest evidence for the presence of early humans in Indonesia. Fossilised remains of Homo erectus in Indonesia, popularly known as the "Java Man" were first discovered by the Dutch anatom...

    Early kingdom

    Indonesia like much of Southeast Asia was influenced by Indian culture. From the 2nd century, through the Indian dynasties like the Pallava, Gupta, Pala and Cholain the succeeding centuries up to the 12th century, Indian culture spread across all of Southeast Asia. References to the Dvipantara or Yawadvipa, a Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra appear in Sanskrit writings from 200 BCE. In India's earliest epic, the Ramayana, Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa, the...

    Tarumanagara and Sunda

    One such early kingdom was Tarumanagara, which flourished between 358 and 669 CE. Located in West Java close to modern-day Jakarta, its 5th-century king, Purnawarman, established the earliest known inscriptions in Java, the Ciaruteun inscription located near Bogor. And other inscriptions called the Pasir Awi inscription and the Muncul inscription. On this monument, King Purnawarman inscribed his name and made an imprint of his footprints, as well as his elephant's footprints. The accompanying...

    Medang

    Medang Empire, sometimes referred to as Mataram, was an Indianized kingdom based in Central Java around modern-day Yogyakarta between the 8th and 10th centuries. The kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty, and later by the Sanjaya dynasty. The centre of the kingdom was moved from central Java to East Java by Mpu Sindok. An eruption of the volcano Mount Merapi in 929, and political pressure from Sailendrans based in the Srivijaya Empiremay have caused the move. The first king of Mataram, S...

    The spread of Islam

    The earliest accounts of the Indonesian archipelago date from the Abbasid Caliphate, according to those early accounts the Indonesian archipelago were famous among early Muslim sailors mainly due to its abundance of precious spice trade commodities such as nutmeg, cloves, galangaland many other spices. Although Muslim traders first travelled through South East Asia early in the Islamic era, the spread of Islam among the inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago dates to the 13th century in no...

    Sultanate of Mataram

    The Sultanate of Mataram was the third Sultanate in Java, after the Sultanate of Demak Bintoroand the Sultanate of Pajang. According to Javanese records, Kyai Gedhe Pamanahan became the ruler of the Mataram area in the 1570s with the support of the kingdom of Pajang to the east, near the current site of Surakarta(Solo). Pamanahan was often referred to as Kyai Gedhe Mataram after his ascension. Pamanahan's son, Panembahan Senapati, replaced his father on the throne around 1584. Under Senapati...

    The Sultanate of Banten

    In 1524–25, Sunan Gunung Jati from Cirebon, together with the armies of Demak Sultanate, seized the port of Banten from the Sunda kingdom, and established The Sultanate of Banten. This was accompanied by Muslim preachers and the adoption of Islam amongst the local population. At its peak in the first half of the 17th century, the Sultanate lasted from 1526 to 1813 AD. The Sultanate left many archaeological remains and historical records.

    Beginning in the 16th century, successive waves of Europeans—the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and English—sought to dominate the spice trade at its sources in India and the 'Spice Islands' (Maluku) of Indonesia. This meant finding a way to Asia to cut out Muslim merchants who, with their Venetian outlet in the Mediterranean, monopolised spice imports...

    Indonesian National Awakening

    In October 1908, the first nationalist movement was formed, Budi Utomo. On 10 September 1912, the first nationalist mass movement was formed: Sarekat Islam. By December 1912, Sarekat Islam had 93,000 members. The Dutch responded after the First World War with repressive measures. The nationalist leaders came from a small group of young professionals and students, some of whom had been educated in the Netherlands. In the post–World War I era, the Indonesian communists who were associated with...

    Japanese occupation

    The Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation during World War II interrupted Dutch rule and encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement. In May 1940, early in World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the Netherlands, but the Dutch government-in-exile initially continued to control the Dutch East Indies from its base in London. The Dutch East Indies declared a state of siege and in July 1940 redirected exports intended for Japan to the US and Britain. Negotiations with...

    Indonesian National Revolution

    Under pressure from radical and politicised pemuda ('youth') groups, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945, two days after the Japanese Emperor's surrender in the Pacific. The following day, the Central Indonesian National Committee (KNIP) declared Sukarno President and Hatta Vice-President. Word of the proclamation spread by shortwave and fliers while the Indonesian war-time military (PETA), youths, and others rallied in support of the new republic, often mov...

    Democratic experiment

    With the unifying struggle to secure Indonesia's independence over, divisions in Indonesian society began to appear. These included regional differences in customs, religion, the impact of Christianity and Marxism, and fears of Javanese political domination. Following colonial rule, Japanese occupation, and war against the Dutch, the new country suffered from severe poverty, a ruinous economy, low educational and skills levels, and authoritarian traditions. Challenges to the authority of the...

    Guided Democracy

    By 1956, Sukarno was openly criticising parliamentary democracy, stating that it was "based upon inherent conflict" which ran counter to Indonesian notions of harmony as being the natural state of human relationships. Instead, he sought a system based on the traditional village system of discussion and consensus, under the guidance of village elders. He proposed a threefold blend of nasionalisme ('nationalism'), agama ('religion'), and komunisme ('communism') into a co-operative 'Nas-A-Kom' g...

    Sukarno's revolution and nationalism

    Charismatic Sukarno spoke as a romantic revolutionary, and under his increasingly authoritarian rule, Indonesia moved on a course of stormy nationalism. Sukarno was popularly referred to as bang ("older brother"), and he painted himself as a man of the people carrying the aspirations of Indonesia and one who dared take on the West.He instigated a number of large, ideologically driven infrastructure projects and monuments celebrating Indonesia's identity, which were criticised as substitutes f...

    Transition to the New Order

    Described as the great dalang ("puppet master"), Sukarno's position depended on balancing the opposing and increasingly hostile forces of the army and the PKI. Sukarno's anti-imperialist ideology saw Indonesia increasingly dependent on Soviet and then communist China. By 1965, the PKI was the largest communist party in the world outside the Soviet Union or China. Penetrating all levels of government, the party increasingly gained influence at the expense of the army. On 30 September 1965, six...

    Entrenchment of the New Order

    In the aftermath of Suharto's rise, hundreds of thousands of people were killed or imprisoned by the military and religious groups in a backlash against alleged communist supporters, with direct support from the United States. Suharto's administration is commonly called the New Order era.Suharto invited major foreign investment, which produced substantial, if uneven, economic growth. However, Suharto enriched himself and his family through business dealings and widespread corruption.

    Annexation of West Irian

    At the time of independence, the Dutch retained control over the western half of New Guinea (also known as West Irian), and permitted steps towards self-government and a declaration of independence on 1 December 1961. After negotiations with the Dutch on the incorporation of the territory into Indonesia failed, an Indonesian paratroop invasion 18 December preceded armed clashes between Indonesian and Dutch troops in 1961 and 1962. In 1962 the United States pressured the Netherlands into secre...

    Pro-democracy movement

    In 1996 Suharto undertook efforts to pre-empt a challenge to the New Order government. The Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI), a legal party that had traditionally propped up the regime, had changed direction and began to assert its independence. Suharto fostered a split over the leadership of PDI, backing a co-opted faction loyal to deputy speaker of the People's Representative Council Suryadi against a faction loyal to Megawati Sukarnoputri, the daughter of Sukarnoand the PDI's chairperson....

    Economic crisis and Suharto's resignation

    In 1997 and 1998, Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, which had dire consequences for the Indonesian economy and society, as well as Suharto's presidency. At the same time, the country suffered a severe drought and some of the largest forest fires in history burned in Kalimantan and Sumatra. The rupiah, the Indonesian currency, took a sharp dive in value. Suharto came under scrutiny from international lending institutions, chiefly the World Bank, Internat...

    May 1998 riots of Indonesia

    The May 1998 riots of Indonesia also known as the 1998 tragedy or simply the 1998 event, were incidents of mass violence, demonstrations, and civil unrest of a racial nature that occurred throughout Indonesia.

    Burhanudin, Jajat, and Kees van Dijk, eds. Islam in Indonesia: Contrasting Images and Interpretations(Amsterdam University Press, distributed by University of Chicago Press; 2013) 279 pages; schola...
    Dijk, Kees van. 2001. A country in despair. Indonesia between 1997 and 2000. KITLV Press, Leiden, ISBN 90-6718-160-9
    Schwarz, Adam. 1994. A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia's Search for Stability. 2nd Edition. St Leonards, NSW : Allen & Unwin.
    van Zanden J. L. An Economic History of Indonesia: 1800–2010(Routledge, 2012)
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