Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE.
Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction that typically deals with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, parallel universes, and extraterrestrial life.
Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science. This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, for ...
- Middle English
- Middle French
- Old French
From Middle English science, scyence, borrowed from Old French science, escience, from Latin scientia (“knowledge”), from sciens, the present participle stem of scire (“to know”).
1. science on Wikiquote.Wikiquote 2. "science" in Raymond Williams, Keywords(revised), 1983, Fontana Press, page 276.
From Middle French science, from Old French science, escience, borrowed from Latin scientia.
1. IPA(key): /sjɑ̃s/ 2. Rhymes: -ɑ̃s 3. Homophone: sciences
science f (plural sciences) 1. science (field of study, etc.)
1. scyence, syens, sciens, sciense, sience
From Old French science, from Latin scientia.
1. IPA(key): /siːˈɛns(ə)/, /siˈɛns(ə)/
From Old French science.
science f (plural sciences) 1. science (field of study, etc.) 2. knowledge
Borrowed from Latin scientia.
science f (nominative singular science) 1. knowledge; wisdom
"Science fiction is the search for a definition of man and his status in the universe which will stand in our advanced but confused state of knowledge (science), and is characteristically cast in the Gothic or post-Gothic mould".
- Information dissemination in the 21st century
- Research vectors and applications
Information science is an academic field which is primarily concerned with analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information. Practitioners within and outside the field study the application and the usage of knowledge in organizations in addition to the interaction between people, organizations, and any existing information systems with the aim of creating, replacing, improving, or understanding information systems. His
Information science focuses on understanding problems from the perspective of the stakeholders involved and then applying information and other technologies as needed. In other words, it tackles systemic problems first rather than individual pieces of technology within that syste
The first known usage of the term "information science" was in 1955. An early definition of Information science states: "Information science is that discipline that investigates the properties and behavior of information, the forces governing the flow of information, and the mean
Philosophy of information studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy. It includes the investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information, including its dynamics, utilisation and science
An information scientist is an individual, usually with a relevant subject degree or high level of subject knowledge, who provides focused information to scientific and technical research staff in industry or to subject faculty and students in academia. The industry *information
A systems analyst works on creating, designing, and improving information systems for a specific need. Oftentimes a systems analyst works with a business to evaluate and implement organizational processes and techniques for accessing information in order to improve efficiency and
An information professional is an individual who preserves, organizes, and disseminates information. Information professionals are skilled in the organization and retrieval of recorded knowledge. Traditionally, their work has been with print materials, but these skills are being
Information science, in studying the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information has origins in the common stock of human knowledge. Information analysis has been carried out by scholars at least as early as the time of the Assyri
By the 19th century the first signs of information science emerged as separate and distinct from other sciences and social sciences but in conjunction with communication and computation. In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a punched card system to control operations of the cl
The discipline of documentation science, which marks the earliest theoretical foundations of modern information science, emerged in the late part of the 19th century in Europe together with several more scientific indexes whose purpose was to organize scholarly literature. Many i
Dissemination has historically been interpreted as unilateral communication of information. With the advent of the internet, and the explosion in popularity of online communities, "social media has changed the information landscape in many respects, and creates both new modes of
Social media networks provide an open information environment for the mass of people who have limited time or access to traditional outlets of information diffusion, this is an "increasingly mobile and social world demands...new types of information skills". Social media integrat
The connections and networks sustained through social media help information providers learn what is important to people. The connections people have throughout the world enable the exchange of information at an unprecedented rate. It is for this reason that these networks have b
The following areas are some of those that information science investigates and develops.
- Geographic Distribution
- Further Reading
The acronym was adopted by Rita Colwell and other science administrators in the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 2001. However, the acronym STEM predates NSF and was used by a variety of educators including Charles E. Vela, the founder and director of the Center for the Advancement of Hispanics in Science and Engineering Education (CAHSEE). In the early 1990s, CAHSEE started a summer program for talented under-represented students in the Washington, DC area called the STEM Institute. Based on the program's recognized success and his expertise in STEM education, Charles Vela was asked to serve on numerous NSF and Congressional panels in science, mathematics and engineering education; it is through this manner that NSF was first introduced to the acronym STEM. One of the first NSF projects to use the acronym was STEMTEC, the Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Teacher Education Collaborative at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, which was founded in 1998.
The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority 2015 report entitled, National STEM School Education Strategy, stated that "A renewed national focus on STEM in school education is critical to ensuring that all young Australians are equipped with the necessary STEM skills and knowledge that they must need to succeed."Its goals were to: 1. "Ensure all students finish school with strong foundational knowledge in STEM and related skills" 2. "Ensure that students are inspired to take...
Canada ranks 12th out of 16 peer countries in the percentage of its graduates who studied in STEM programs, with 21.2%, a number higher than the United States, but lower than France, Germany, and Austria. The peer country with the greatest proportion of STEM graduates, Finland, has over 30% of their university graduates coming from science, mathematics, computer science, and engineering programs. SHAD is an annual Canadian summer enrichment program for high-achieving high schoolstudents in Ju...
To promote STEM in China, the Chinese government issued a guideline in 2016 on national innovation-driven development strategy, instructing that by 2020, China should become an innovative country; by 2030, it should be at the forefront of innovative countries; and by 2050, it should become a technology innovation power. In February 2017, the Ministry of Education in China has announced to officially add STEM education into the primary school curriculum, which is the first official government...
Women constitute 47% of the U.S. workforce, and perform 24% of STEM-related jobs. In the UK women perform 13% of STEM-related jobs (2014).In the U.S. women with STEM degrees are more likely to work in education or healthcare rather than STEM fields compared with their male counterparts. The gender ratio depends on field of study. For example, in the European Unionin 2012 women made up 47.3% of the total, 51% of the social sciences, business and law, 42% of the science, mathematics and computing, 28% of engineering, manufacturing and construction, and 59% of PhD graduates in Health and Welfare. A recent study has also shown that sexual minority men are less likely to have completed a bachelor’s degree in a STEM field and to work in a STEM occupation.
The focus on increasing participation in STEM fields has attracted criticism. In the 2014 article "The Myth of the Science and Engineering Shortage" in The Atlantic, demographer Michael S. Teitelbaum criticized the efforts of the U.S. government to increase the number of STEM graduates, saying that, among studies on the subject, "No one has been able to find any evidence indicating current widespread labor market shortages or hiring difficulties in science and engineering occupations that require bachelor's degrees or higher", and that "Most studies report that real wages in many—but not all—science and engineering occupations have been flat or slow-growing, and unemployment as high or higher than in many comparably-skilled occupations." Teitelbaum also wrote that the then-current national fixation on increasing STEM participation paralleled previous U.S. government efforts since World War II to increase the number of scientists and engineers, all of which he stated ultimately ended...
1. Technology Access Foundation -- STEM Success for Washington StudentsDavid Beede; et al. (September 2011). "Education Supports Racial and Ethnic Equality in STEM" (PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved 2012-12-21.David Beede; et al. (August 2011). "Women in STEM: An Opportunity and An Imperative" (PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved 2012-12-21.David Langdon; et al. (July 2011). "STEM: Good Jobs Now and For the Future" (PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved 2012-12-21.Arden Bement (May 24, 2005). "Statement To House & Senate Appriopriators In Support Of STEM Education And NSF Education" (PDF). STEM Coalition. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 20, 2012...