A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc..
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world.
- United Kingdom
- 1884–1928 (first edition), 1989 (second edition), Third edition in preparation
- Oxford University Press
- The text
- Reception history
- Folio and abridged editions
- Modern editions
Published on 15 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary, is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language. There was dissatisfaction with the dictionaries of the period, so in June 1746 a group of London booksellers contracted Johnson to write a dictionary for the sum of 1,500 guineas, equivalent to about £250,000 in 2021. Johnson took seven years to complete the work...
In earlier times, books had been regarded with something approaching veneration, but by the mid-eighteenth century this was no longer the case. The rise of literacy among the general public, combined with the technical advances in the mechanics of printing and bookbinding, meant that for the first time, books, texts, maps, pamphlets and newspapers were widely available to the general public at a reasonable cost. Such an explosion of the printed word demanded a set pattern of grammar, definition,
A Dictionary of the English Language was somewhat large and very expensive. Its pages were 18 inches tall and nearly 20 inches wide. The paper was of the finest quality available, the cost of which ran to nearly £1,600; more than Johnson had been paid to write the book. Johnson himself pronounced the book "Vasta mole superbus". No bookseller could possibly hope to print this book without help; outside a few special editions of the Bible no book of this heft and size had even been set to ...
From the beginning there was universal appreciation not only of the content of the Dictionary but also of Johnson's achievement in single-handedly creating it: "When Boswell came to this part of Johnson's life, more than three decades later, he pronounced that 'the world contempl
As lexicography developed, faults were found with Johnson's work: "From an early stage there were noisy detractors. Perhaps the loudest of them was John Horne Tooke... Not content to pronounce it 'imperfect and faulty', he complained that it was 'one of the most idle performances
Despite the criticisms, "The influence of the Dictionary was sweeping. Johnson established both a methodology for how dictionaries should be put together and a paradigm for how entries should be presented. Anyone who sought to create a dictionary, post-Johnson, did so in his shad
Johnson's dictionary came out in two forms. The first was the 1755 Folio edition, which came in two large volumes on 4 April. The folio edition also features full literary quotes by those authors that Johnson quoted, such as Dryden and Shakespeare. It was followed a few weeks later by a second edition published in 165 weekly parts. The third edition was published in 1765, but it was the fourth, which came out in 1773 which included significant revisions by Johnson of the original work. The Abrid
Johnson's Dictionary has been available in replica editions for some years. The entire first Folio edition is available on A Dictionary of the English Language as an electronic scan. As of April 15, 2021, A Dictionary of the English Language will become Johnsons Dictionary Online, a project funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and created by a team of scholars at the University of Central Florida. This version is the first fully searchable online edition and will eventually includ
- Samuel Johnson
- 15 April 1755
- Great Britain
- Dictionaries Which Explain The Meaning of Words
- Dictionaries Which Translate Into Foreign Languages
- Updating Dictionaries
- Relevant Literature
- Other Websites
1. TheFreeDictionary 2. Longman English Dictionary Online Dictionaries which explain what words mean will give a clear "definition" of the word (e.g. hippopotamus : a hoofed mammal with thick skin, large mouth and short legs that lives in rivers and lakes of Africa.) A big dictionary will also give more information about the word. It will explain how it is pronounced. Usually the International Phonetic Alphabet is used for this. It will explain how the word is used. This is not a problem for...
There are also dictionaries which translate words into foreign languages. Often one volume (one book) will translate both ways; for example, half the book might be translating from English to Dutchand the other half from Dutch to English. When using a dictionary to find out how to say something in another language one has to be careful to choose the right word. A word like "right" has two basic meanings in English: 1) "correct", and 2) the opposite of "left". Other languages have different words for these different meanings, but they have homonymsof their own. A word like "put" has many meanings. A good dictionary will have a large list of these meanings to help people find the word they want. In many languages, for example, the word “put” will be different according to whether something is being put onto something (e.g. a table) or into something (e.g. a cupboard).
Dictionaries need to be updated frequently because of the way language changes. New words are often brought into a language (e.g. lots of computer terms) or words change their meanings (e.g. "gay" or "cool"). In this sense, the most famous English Dictionary is the Oxford English Dictionary (or OED). Words are always being added to the OED. They are never taken out even if they are obsolete (not used any more). The OED can be accessed online (with a subscription).Henning Bergenholtz/Sven Tarp (eds.): Manual of Specialised Lexicography. Benjamins 1995.Sandro Nielsen: The Bilingual LSP Dictionary. Gunter Narr 1994.
From today's featured article The storming of Caen The Battle of Caen on 26 July 1346 was an assault on the French-held town by a force of archers and men-at-arms, part of an invading English army under King Edward III during the Hundred Years' War. This force, nominally commanded by the Earls of Warwick and Northampton, was eager for plunder, and attacked against orders, before the rest of ...
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- Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language
- Other dictionaries with Webster's name
- Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961)
- Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary
- The name Webster used by others
Webster's Dictionary is any of the English language dictionaries edited in the early 19th century by American lexicographer Noah Webster, as well as numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name in honor. "Webster's" has since become a genericized trademark in the United States for English dictionaries, and is widely used in dictionary titles. Merriam-Webster is the corporate heir to Noah Webster's original works, which are in the public domain.
Noah Webster, the author of the readers and spelling books which dominated the American market at the time, spent decades of research in compiling his dictionaries. His first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, appeared in 1806. In it, he popularized features which would become a hallmark of American English spelling and included technical terms from the arts and sciences rather than confining his dictionary to literary words. Webster was a proponent of English spelling
Noah Webster's assistant, and later chief competitor, Joseph Emerson Worcester, and Webster's son-in-law Chauncey A. Goodrich, published an abridgment of Noah Webster's 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language in 1829, with the same number of words and Webster's full definitions, but with truncated literary references and expanded etymology. Although it was more successful financially than the original 1828 edition and was reprinted many times, Noah Webster was critical of it. Worcester
After about a decade of preparation, G. & C. Merriam issued the entirely new Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged in September 1961. Although it was an unprecedented masterwork of scholarship, it was met with considerable criticism for its descriptive approach. The dictionary's treatment of "ain't" was subject to particular scorn, since it seemed to overrule the near-unanimous denunciation of that word by English teachers.
Merriam-Webster introduced its Collegiate Dictionary in 1898 and the series is now in its eleventh edition. Following the publication of Webster's International in 1890, two Collegiate editions were issued as abridgments of each of their Unabridged editions. With the ninth edition, the Collegiate adopted changes which distinguish it as a separate entity rather than merely an abridgment of the "Third New International." Some proper names were returned to the word list, including names of Knights
Since the late 19th century, dictionaries bearing the name Webster's have been published by companies other than Merriam-Webster. Some of these were unauthorized reprints of Noah Webster's work; some were revisions of his work. One such revision was Webster's Imperial Dictionary, based on John Ogilvie's The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language, itself an expansion of Noah Webster's American Dictionary. Following legal action by Merriam, successive US courts ruled by 1908 that Webster's en
Jul 23, 2021 · Wiktionary has grown beyond a standard dictionary and now includes a thesaurus, a rhyme guide, phrase books, language statistics and extensive appendices.We aim to include not only the definition of a word, but also enough information to really understand it.
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