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  1. A New History of Ireland: I – PreHistoric and Early Ireland, ed. Daibhi O Croinin. 2005, ISBN 0-19-821737-4; A New History of Ireland: II- Medieval Ireland 1169–1534, ed. Art Cosgrove. 1987. Braudel, Fernand, The Perspective of the World, vol III of Civilization and Capitalism (1979, in English 1985), ISBN 0-06-015317-2

  2. History of Ireland (1801–1923) /  53.350°N 6.267°W  / 53.350; -6.267. Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 2021 to Present . For almost all of this period, the island was governed by the UK Parliament in London through its Dublin Castle administration in Ireland. Ireland underwent considerable ...

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    What is the early history of Ireland?

    What is the historical background of Ireland?

    What are some important events in Ireland?

    What was Ireland like in the early 1800s?

    • Summary
    • Overview
    • Early Christian history

    The early medieval history of Ireland, often called Early Christian Ireland, spans the 5th to 8th centuries, from the gradual emergence out of the protohistoric period to the beginning of the Viking Age. The period notably includes the Hiberno-Scottish mission of Christianised Ireland to regions of pagan Great Britain and the spread of Irish cultural influence to Continental Europe.

    At the start of the period, Ireland had emerged from a mysterious decline that archaeological evidence suggests had hit population levels and standards of living from c. 100–300 AD, called the Irish Dark Age by Thomas Charles-Edwards. The population was entirely rural and dispersed, with small ringforts the largest centres of human occupation. Some 40,000 of these are known, while there may have been as many as 50,000, and "archaeologists are agreed that the vast bulk of them are the farm ...

    Recorded Irish history begins with the introduction of Christianity and Latin literacy, beginning in the 5th century or possibly slightly before. When compared to neighbouring Insular societies, early Christian Ireland is well documented, at least for later periods, but these sources are not easy to interpret. Many questions remain unanswered and the study of early Christian Ireland continues to produce new theories and new discoveries. Since the later 19th century, when scholars such as Kuno Me

    • Overview
    • Economic situation
    • Irish politics
    • Culture
    • Legacy

    The history of Ireland from 1691–1800 was marked by the dominance of the Protestant Ascendancy. These were Anglo-Irish families of the Anglican Church of Ireland, whose English ancestors had settled Ireland in the wake of its conquest by England and colonisation in the Plantations of Ireland, and had taken control of most of the land. Many were absentee landlords based in England, but others lived full-time in Ireland and increasingly identified as Irish.. During this time, Ireland was...

    In the wake of the wars of conquest of the 17th century, completely deforested of timber for export and for a temporary iron industry in the course of the 17th century, Irish estates turned to the export of salt beef, pork, butter, and hard cheese through the slaughterhouse and port city of Cork, which supplied England, the British navy and the sugar islands of the West Indies. George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne wondered "how a foreigner could possibly conceive that half the inhabitants are dying

    The majority of the people of Ireland were Catholic peasants; they were very poor and largely impotent politically during the eighteenth century, as many of their leaders converted to Protestantism to avoid severe economic and political penalties. Nevertheless, there was a growing Catholic cultural awakening underway. There were two Protestant groups. The Presbyterians in Ulster in the north lived in better economic conditions, but had virtually no political power. Power was held by a small grou

    Some historians argue that there were two cultures existing side by side in 18th century Ireland, which had little contact with each other. One was Catholic and Gaelic, the other Anglo-Irish and Protestant. In this period, there continued to be a vibrant Irish language literature, exemplified by the Aisling genre of Irish poetry. These were dream poems, typically featuring a woman representing Ireland who pleaded with the young men of Ireland to save her from slavery and oppression. Many Irish l

    This period in Irish history has been called "the long peace" and indeed for nearly one hundred years, there was little political violence in Ireland, in stark contrast to the previous two hundred years. Nevertheless, the period 1691–1801 began and ended in violence. By its close, the dominance of the Protestant Ascendancy that had ruled the country for 100 years was beginning to be challenged by an increasingly assertive Catholic population, and was ended by the Acts of Union 1800 that ...

  4. › wiki › IrelandIreland - Wikipedia

    Ireland Éire (Irish) Airlann (Ulster Scots) Satellite image, October 2010 Location of Ireland (dark green) in Europe (dark grey) Geography Location Northwestern Europe Coordinates Adjacent bodies of water Atlantic Ocean Area 84,421 km 2 (32,595 sq mi) Area rank 20th Coastline 7,524 km (4675.2 mi) Highest elevation 1,041 m (3415 ft) Highest point Carrauntoohil Administration Republic of ...

    • 20th
    • 96.4% White, 1.7% Asian, 1.1% Black, 0.8% Other
    • Prehistory
    • Early Medieval Era
    • Norman Era
    • Modern Ireland
    • Efforts For Freedom
    • After Division

    Nobody knows exactly when the first people came to Ireland. Using radiometric dating, scientists found that a bear bone with knife marks was 12,500 years old. It is likely that people lived in Ireland then. By 7900 BCE, hunter-gatherers (people who ate wild plants and animals) lived in Ireland. This time was called the Stone Age. Around 4000 BCE, they started making farms with animals and plants. They made pottery, stone tools, wood houses, and large tombs. The Bronze Age started around 2500 BCE. People learned to make things out of metals like bronze, gold, and copper, but it was mostly only rich people who had them. People also started weaving and working with leather. Large rooms were built to store metal weapons. The Iron Age started around 600 BCE or earlier, when people started making iron tools. During the Iron Age, Celts came to Ireland, so they started speaking Celtic languages. The Celts brought their style of art with them. Between 1 and 400 CE, Roman soldiers may have in...

    In the 300s CE, Christianity and writing were both brought to Ireland. Saint Patrick was famous for spreading Christianity in Ireland in the 400s, but he was not the first Christian in Ireland. For the next 300-400 years, more Irish people became Christian. Christian monks from other countries came to Irish monasteries. Some monasteries grew into towns. The main buildings from 400-800 CE were round forts (raths or ringforts) made of dirt, with houses inside. Most of the forests were cut down to make farms. There were some new kingdomsin this time. The kingdom of Uí Néill in north Ireland took over the area called Tara, then ruled over all the other kingdoms. They were called the high kings. By 800 almost everyone was Christian. They were called Gaels and they spoke the Gaelic language. In 795, the Vikings, sailors from Scandinavia, invaded and stole from many towns. The Vikings ruled over Irish kings. They built Dublinand other cities and towns on the coast. In 902 the Christian Iri...

    In the 1100s, Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair was the high king. He forced Diarmaid Mac Murchada, the king of Leinster, to leave his kingdom. Diarmaid asked Henry II, a Norman king of England, to help him get his land back. Henry agreed, so an army of Norman (and Welsh) knights invaded Ireland in 1167. Richard de Clare, called Strongbow, led the knights. Henry thought the Norman knights and Strongbow were too powerful, so he decided to take over Ireland. He traveled to Ireland with his own fleet in 1171. Henry conquered Ireland and gave it to his youngest son John. Henry thought John would never be king of England, so he made John Lord of Ireland. But John became king of England in 1199 after all his brothers died. After that, Ireland was ruled by the English king. Norman lords from England started taking over more of Ireland. They mostly lived near the east and south coasts, and some land was still ruled by Irish kings. The Norman lords built new castles and towns in their land. Many people...

    Ireland had a governor (ruler) who was supposed to be loyal to the King of England. In the 1530s, Thomas Fitzgerald, the governor, rebelled against England. Because of this, King Henry VIII of England wanted more power. In 1541, he declared himself King of Ireland instead of Lord of Ireland. The English built military forts in Ireland. English settlersmoved to areas in Ireland called plantations. They used English laws and took over a lot of Ireland. During the Nine Years War in the 1590s, Irish soldiers from Ulster fought the English. Most of the Irish people were Catholic. The settlers were mostly Protestant. In Ulster, the largest plantation, settlers were mostly Presbyterians from Scotland. In the other provinces, the settlers were mostly Anglicans from England. English kings and the English Parliament wanted the Irish people to be Anglican. They made the Church of Ireland, a branch of the Anglican Church. The Penal Laws of the 1600s punished Irish people who did not follow the...

    In the late 1800s and early 1900s, the British government made it easier for Irish people to buy land. In 1886 the Liberal Party tried to make a new parliament for Ireland. This idea was called Home Rule. However, Parliament did not allow Ireland to have Home Rule. Around 1900, Irish people were split into Nationalists, who wanted Home Rule or independence, and Unionists, who wanted to be ruled by Britain. Nationalists were mostly Catholics who lived in rural areas. Unionists were mostly Protestants who lived in cities. The Unionists worried they would lose their rights if Ireland had its own government. In some parts of Ireland, Unionists were mostly rich. But in Ulster, many Unionists were workers who wanted the upper classto have less power. In 1912 some people in Parliament tried again to get Home Rule. About 500,000 Unionists in Ulster signed a petition against Home Rule called the Ulster Convenant. They also formed an army called the Ulster Volunteers. Irish Nationalists forme...

    Northern Ireland was governed by the Ulster Unionist Party from 1922-1972. James Craig, its first prime minister, said it was a Protestant country. The Irish Free State got a new constitution in 1937, which created its government. In 1949, Ireland left the British Commonwealth and became the Republic of Ireland (sometimes just called Ireland). In 1969, violence was growing in Northern Ireland between the Nationalist Catholics and Unionist Protestants. The Provisional IRA formed to defend Catholics and unite Ireland. From 1969 until 1998, there was constant fighting (The Troubles) between the Provisional IRA and the UK Army. In 1998, Irish voters approved the Belfast Agreement, or Good Friday Agreement, which meant they agreed that Northern Ireland would stay in the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland could join the Republic of Ireland if more than half of voters wanted to. The agreement also created councils where ministers from both parts of Ireland worked together. Northern Ireland g...

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