Sodium at standard temperature and pressure is a soft silvery metal that combines with oxygen in the air and forms grayish white sodium oxide unless immersed in oil or inert gas, which are the conditions it is usually stored in. Sodium metal can be easily cut with a knife and is a good conductor of electricity and heat because it has only one electron in its valence shell, resulting in weak ...
- silvery white metallic
- group 1: hydrogen and alkali metals
- Discovery and Name
- Use as Element
- Occurrence and Production
- Use in Organisms
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Sodium is a light, silver-coloured metal. Sodium is so soft that it can be easily cut with a knife. When it is cut, the surface will become white over time. This is because it reacts with air to form sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. Sodium is a little lighter than water; when it reacts with water it floats. This reaction is very fast. Hydrogen and sodium hydroxide are produced. The hydrogen may ignite. Since sodium melts at a low temperature, it melts when it reacts with water. It has one valence electronwhich is removed easily, making it highly reactive. Compared with other alkali metals (metals in the first column of the periodic table), sodium is usually less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium.
Sodium was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy, an English scientist, back in 1807. He made it by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide. It is named after soda, a name for sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate.
It is used in the preparation of organic compounds. It is also used in the street lights that are orange, and ultra violet lights.
Sodium does not exist as an element in nature; its easily removed valence electron is too reactive. It exists as an ion in chemical compounds. Sodium ions are found in the ocean. It is also found as sodium chloride in the earth's crust, where it is mined. Sodium is normally made by electrolysis of very hot sodium chloridethat was melted.
Sodium ion in the form of sodium chloride is needed in the human body, but large amounts of it cause problems, which is why one should not eat too much salt and other food items with huge sodium amount (such as biscuits with baking soda). Many organisms in the ocean depend on the proper concentration of ions in sea water to live.
- silvery white metallic
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Sodium channels are known to be less selective in comparison to potassium channels. Sodium is the most prominent cation in extracellular fluid: in the 15 liters of extracellular fluid in a 70 kg human there is around 50 grams of sodium, 90% of the body's total sodium content.
Sodium chloride /ˌsoʊdiəm ˈklɔːraɪd/, commonly known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In its edible form of table salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and...
In addition to the familiar domestic uses of salt, more dominant applications of the approximately 250 million tonnes per year production include chemicals and de-icing.
In solid sodium chloride, each ion is surrounded by six ions of the opposite charge as expected on electrostatic grounds. The surrounding ions are located at the vertices of a regular octahedron. In the language of close-packing, the larger chloride ions are arranged in a cubic a
The pH of a sodium chloride solution remains ≈7 due to the extremely weak basicity of the Cl− ion, which is the conjugate base of the strong acid HCl. In other words, NaCl has no effect on system pH in diluted solutions where the effects of ionic strength and activity ...
Common salt has a 1:1 molar ratio of sodium and chlorine. In 2013, compounds of sodium and chloride of different stoichiometries have been discovered; five new compounds were predicted. The existence of some of them has been experimentally confirmed at high pressures: cubic and o
Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei far out at sea, which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air.
Salt is currently mass-produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from brine wells and salt lakes. Mining of rock salt is also a major source. China is the world's main supplier of salt. In 2017, world production was estimated at 280 million tonnes, the top five producers being China, United States, India, Germany, and Canada. Salt is also a byproduct of potassium mining.
- 58.443 g/mol
- 800.7 °C (1,473.3 °F; 1,073.8 K)
- 360 g/1000 g pure water at T = 25 °C
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations Na+ and hydroxide anions OH−. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·nH 2O. The...
Pure sodium hydroxide is a colorless crystalline solid that melts at 318 °C without decomposition, and with a boiling point of 1,388 °C. It is highly soluble in water, with a lower solubility in polar solvents such as ethanol and methanol. NaOH is insoluble in ether and ...
Sodium hydroxide is industrially produced as a 50% solution by variations of the electrolytic chloralkali process. Chlorine gas is also produced in this process. Solid sodium hydroxide is obtained from this solution by the evaporation of water. Solid sodium hydroxide is most commonly sold as flakes, prills, and cast blocks. In 2004, world production was estimated at 60 million dry tonnes of sodium hydroxide, and demand was estimated at 51 million tonnes. In 1998, total world production was aroun
Sodium hydroxide is a popular strong base used in industry. Sodium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of sodium salts and detergents, pH regulation, and organic synthesis. In bulk, it is most often handled as an aqueous solution, since solutions are cheaper and easier to handle.
Like other corrosive acids and alkalis, drops of sodium hydroxide solutions can readily decompose proteins and lipids in living tissues via amide hydrolysis and ester hydrolysis, which consequently cause chemical burns and may induce permanent blindness upon contact with eyes. Solid alkali can also express its corrosive nature if there is water, such as water vapor. Thus, protective equipment, like rubber gloves, safety clothing and eye protection, should always be used when handling this chemic
Careful storage is needed when handling sodium hydroxide for use, especially bulk volumes. Following proper NaOH storage guidelines and maintaining worker/environment safety is always recommended given the chemical's burn hazard.
- 39.9971 g mol−1
- 323 °C (613 °F; 596 K)
- 418 g/L (0 °C), 1000 g/L (25 °C), 3370 g/L (100 °C)
- Stability & Shelf Life
Sodium bicarbonate, commonly known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of a sodium cation and a bicarbonate anion. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda. The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.
Because it has long been known and widely used, the salt has many different names such as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, and bicarbonate of soda and can often be found near baking powder in stores. The term baking soda is more common in the United States, while bicarbonate of soda is more common in Australia and Britain, and in many northern/central European countries it is called Natron. Abbreviated colloquial forms such as sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, bicarbonate, and bicarb are common.
In cooking, baking soda is primarily used in baking as a leavening agent. When it reacts with acid, carbon dioxide is released, which causes expansion of the batter and forms the characteristic texture and grain in cakes, quick breads, soda bread, and other baked and fried foods.
Sodium bicarbonate is one of the main components of the common "black snake" firework. The effect is caused by the thermal decomposition, which produces carbon dioxide gas to produce a long snake-like ash as a combustion product of the other main component, sucrose. Sodium bicarb
It has weak disinfectant properties, and it may be an effective fungicide against some organisms. Because baking soda will absorb musty smells, it has become a reliable method for used book sellers when making books less malodorous.
Sodium bicarbonate is an amphoteric compound. Aqueous solutions are mildly alkaline due to the formation of carbonic acid and hydroxide ion: HCO− 3 + H2O → H 2CO 3 + OH−
If kept cool and dry, sodium bicarbonate can be kept without a significant amount of decomposition for at least two or three years.
The word natron has been in use in many languages throughout modern times and originated via Arabic naṭrūn from Greek nítron, which can be traced back to ancient Egyptian ntr. The Greek nítron was also used in Latin nitrum and in German Salniter. In 1791, French chemist Nicolas Leblanc produced sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash. The pharmacist Valentin Rose the Younger is credited with the discovery of sodium bicarbonate 1801 in Berlin. In 1846, two American bakers, John Dwight ...
- 84.0066 g mol−1
- NaHCO, ₃
- (Decomposes to sodium carbonate starting at 50 °C)