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  1. Hypernatremia (high blood sodium level, above 145 mEq/L) causes thirst, and due to brain cell shrinkage may cause confusion, muscle twitching, or spasms. With severe elevation, seizures and comas may occur. Death can be caused by ingestion of large amounts of salt at a time (about 1 g per kg of body weight).

  2. › wiki › ThiazideThiazide - Wikipedia

    The thiazide receptor is a sodium-chloride transporter that pulls NaCl from the lumen in the distal convoluted tubule. Thiazide diuretics inhibit this receptor, causing the body to release NaCl and water into the lumen, thereby increasing the amount of urine produced each day.

  3. Potassium chloride is used as a scotophor with designation P10 in dark-trace CRTs, e.g. in the Skiatron. Side effects. The typical amounts of potassium chloride found in the diet appear to be generally safe. In larger quantities, however, potassium chloride is toxic.

    • KCl
    • 74.555 g·mol−1
    • 770 °C (1,420 °F; 1,040 K)
    • 277.7 g/L (0 °C), 339.7 g/L (20 °C), 540.2 g/L (100 °C)
  4. Main article: Sodium chloride. Salt is mostly sodium chloride, the ionic compound with the formula NaCl, representing equal ... Table salt is a refined salt containing about 97 to 99 percent sodium chloride.[33][34][35] Usually, anticaking agents such as ... Main article: Sodium chloride. Only about 6% of the salt manufactured in the world is ...

  5. Sodium fluoride ( NaF) is an inorganic compound with the formula Na F. It is used in trace amounts in the fluoridation of drinking water, in toothpaste, in metallurgy, and as a flux, and is also used in pesticides and rat poison. It is a colorless or white solid that is readily soluble in water. It is a common source of fluoride in the ...

    • NaF
    • 41.988173 g/mol
    • 993 °C (1,819 °F; 1,266 K)
    • 36.4 g/L (0 °C);, 40.4 g/L (20 °C);, 50.5 g/L (100 °C)
  6. › wiki › MouthwashMouthwash - Wikipedia

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    Common use involves rinsing the mouth with about 20-50 ml (2/3 fl oz) of mouthwash. The wash is typically swished or gargled for about half a minute and then spat out. Most companies suggest not drinking water immediately after using mouthwash. In some brands, the expectorate is stained, so that one can see the bacteria and debris.Mouthwash should not be used immediately after brushing the teeth so as not to wash away the beneficial fluoride residue left from the toothpaste. Similarly, the mouth should not be rinsed out with water after brushing. Patients were told to "spit don't rinse" after toothbrushing as part of a National Health Service campaign in the UK.A fluoride mouthrinse can be used at a different time of the day to brushing. Gargling is where the head is tilted back, allowing the mouthwash to sit in the back of the mouth while exhaling, causing the liquid to bubble. Gargling is practiced in Japan for perceived prevention of viral infection. One commonly used way is with...

    The most common use of mouthwash is commercial antiseptics, which are used at home as part of an oral hygiene routine. Mouthwashes combine ingredients to treat a variety of oral conditions. Variations are common, and mouthwash has no standard formulation so its use and recommendation involves concerns about patient safety. Some manufacturers of mouthwash state that antiseptic and anti-plaque mouth rinse kill the bacterial plaque that causes cavities, gingivitis, and bad breath. It is, however, generally agreed that the use of mouthwash does not eliminate the need for both brushing and flossing. The American Dental Association asserts that regular brushing and proper flossing are enough in most cases, in addition to regular dental check-ups, although they approve many mouthwashes.For many patients, however, the mechanical methods could be tedious and time-consuming and additionally some local conditions may render them especially difficult. Chemotherapeutic agents, including mouthrin...

    The first known references to mouth rinsing is in Ayurveda for treatment of gingivitis. Later, in the Greek and Roman periods, mouth rinsing following mechanical cleansing became common among the upper classes, and Hippocrates recommended a mixture of salt, alum, and vinegar. The Jewish Talmud, dating back about 1,800 years, suggests a cure for gum ailments containing "dough water" and olive oil. Before Europeans came to the Americas, Native North American and Mesoamerican cultures used mouthwashes, often made from plants such as Coptis trifolia. Indeed, Aztec dentistry was more advanced than European dentistry of the age. Peoples of the Americas used salt water mouthwashes for sore throats, and other mouthwashes for problems such as teethingand mouth ulcers. Anton van Leeuwenhoek, the famous 17th century microscopist, discovered living organisms (living, because they were mobile) in deposits on the teeth (what we now call dental plaque). He also found organisms in water from the ca...

    Research in the field of microbiotas shows that only a limited set of microbes cause tooth decay, with most of the bacteria in the human mouth being harmless. Focused attention on cavity-causing bacteria such as Streptococcus mutanshas led research into new mouthwash treatments that prevent these bacteria from initially growing. While current mouthwash treatments must be used with a degree of frequency to prevent this bacteria from regrowing, future treatments could provide a viable long-term solution.


    Alcohol is added to mouthwash not to destroy bacteria but to act as a carrier agent for essential active ingredients such as menthol, eucalyptol and thymol which help to penetrate plaque. Sometimes a significant amount of alcohol (up to 27% vol) is added, as a carrier for the flavor, to provide "bite". Because of the alcohol content, it is possible to fail a breathalyzer test after rinsing although breath alcohol levels return to normal after 10 minutes. In addition, alcohol is a drying agent...


    In painful oral conditions such as aphthous stomatitis, analgesic mouthrinses (e.g. benzydaminemouthwash, or "Difflam") are sometimes used to ease pain, commonly used before meals to reduce discomfort while eating.

    Benzoic acid

    Benzoic acidacts as a buffer.

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