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  1. In chemistry, a chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

  2. Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations Na + and hydroxide anions OH −. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns.

  3. The most important chemical sodium sulfate production is during hydrochloric acid production, either from sodium chloride (salt) and sulfuric acid, in the Mannheim process, or from sulfur dioxide in the Hargreaves process. The resulting sodium sulfate from these processes is known as salt cake. Mannheim: 2 NaCl + H 2 SO 4 → 2 HCl + Na 2 SO 4

  4. Magnesium sulfate or magnesium sulphate (in English-speaking countries other than the US) is a chemical compound, a salt with the formula MgSO 4, consisting of magnesium cations Mg 2+ (20.19% by mass) and sulfate anions SO 2− 4. It is a white crystalline solid, soluble in water but not in ethanol.

  5. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using chemical symbols for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved. For example, water is composed of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom: the chemical formula is H 2 O.

  6. The compound is neutral overall, but consists of positively charged ions called cations and negatively charged ions called anions. These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na +) and chloride (Cl −) in sodium chloride, or polyatomic species such as the ammonium (NH + 4) and carbonate (CO 2− 3) ions in ammonium carbonate. Individual ions ...

  7. Copper(II) sulfate, also known as copper sulphate, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Cu SO 4.It forms hydrates CuSO 4 ·nH 2 O, where n can range from 1 to 7. The pentahydrate (n = 5), a bright blue crystal, is the most commonly encountered hydrate of copper(II) sulfate.

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