Wireless. For other uses, see Wireless (disambiguation). Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor as a medium by which to perform the transfer. The most common wireless technologies use radio waves.
The first wireless telephone conversation occurred in 1880,...
Radio and microwave communication carry information by...
Common examples of wireless equipment include: 1. Infrared...
Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, optical, or other electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication over a distance greater than that feasible with the human voice, but with a similar scale of expediency; thus, slow systems (such as postal mail) are excluded from the field.
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- Ancient Systems and Optical Telegraphy
- Electrical Telegraph
- Radio and Television
- Semiconductor Era
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Early telecommunications included smoke signals and drums. Talking drums were used by natives in Africa, and smoke signals in North America and China. Contrary to what one might think, these systems were often used to do more than merely announce the presence of a military camp. In Rabbinical Judaisma signal was given by means of kerchiefs or flags at intervals along the way back to the high priest to indicate the goat "for Azazel" had been pushed from the cliff. Homing pigeons have occasionally been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persianroots, and was later used by the Romans to aid their military. Greek hydraulic semaphore systems were used as early as the 4th century BC. The hydraulic semaphores, which worked with water filled vessels and visual signals, functioned as optical telegraphs. However, they could only utilize a very limited range of pre-determined messages, and as with all such optical telegraphs could only be deployed during good visibi...
Experiments on communication with electricity, initially unsuccessful, started in about 1726. Scientists including Laplace, Ampère, and Gausswere involved. An early experiment in electrical telegraphy was an 'electrochemical' telegraph created by the German physician, anatomist and inventor Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring in 1809, based on an earlier, less robust design of 1804 by Spanish polymath and scientist Francisco Salva Campillo. Both their designs employed multiple wires (up to 35) in order to visually represent almost all Latin letters and numerals. Thus, messages could be conveyed electrically up to a few kilometers (in von Sömmerring's design), with each of the telegraph receiver's wires immersed in a separate glass tube of acid. An electric current was sequentially applied by the sender through the various wires representing each digit of a message; at the recipient's end the currents electrolysed the acid in the tubes in sequence, releasing streams of hydrogen bubbles next...
The electric telephone was invented in the 1870s, based on earlier work with harmonic (multi-signal) telegraphs. The first commercial telephone services were set up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven, Connecticut in the US and London, England in the UK. Alexander Graham Bell held the master patent for the telephone that was needed for such services in both countries. All other patents for electric telephone devices and features flowed from this master patent. Credit for the invention of the electric telephone has been frequently disputed, and new controversies over the issue have arisen from time-to-time. As with other great inventions such as radio, television, the light bulb, and the digital computer, there were several inventors who did pioneering experimental work on voice transmission over a wire, who then improved on each other's ideas. However, the key innovators were Alexander Graham Bell and Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who created the fir...
Over several years starting in 1894, the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi worked on adapting the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves to telecommunication, building the first wireless telegraphy system using them. In December 1901, he established wireless communication between St. John's, Newfoundland and Poldhu, Cornwall (England), earning him a Nobel Prize in Physics (which he shared with Karl Braun) in 1909. In 1900, Reginald Fessendenwas able to wirelessly transmit a human voice. Millimetre wave communication was first investigated by Bengali physicist Jagadish Chandra Bose during 1894–1896, when he reached an extremely high frequency of up to 60GHz in his experiments. He also introduced the use of semiconductor junctions to detect radio waves, when he patented the radio crystal detectorin 1901. In 1924, Japanese engineer Kenjiro Takayanagi began a research program on electronic television. In 1925, he demonstrated a CRT television with thermal electron emission. In 1926...
The modern period of telecommunication history from 1950 onwards is referred to as the semiconductor era, due to the wide adoption of semiconductor devices in telecommunication technology. The development of transistor technology and the semiconductor industry enabled significant advances in telecommunication technology, led to the price of telecommunications services declining significantly, and led to a transition away from state-owned narrowband circuit-switched networks to private broadband packet-switched networks. In turn, this led to a significant increase in the total number of telephone subscribers, reaching nearly 1billion users worldwide by the end of the 20th century. The development of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) large-scale integration (LSI) technology, information theory and cellular networking led to the development of affordable mobile communications. There was a rapid growth of the telecommunications industry towards the end of the 20th century, primarily due t...
Visual, auditory and ancillary methods
1. Prehistoric: Fires, Beacons, Smoke signals, Communication drums, Horns 2. 6th century BCE: Mail 3. 5th century BCE: Pigeon post 4. 4th century BCE: Hydraulic semaphores 5. 1500 Korean hwacha net uses hwachas arrows to send mails throughout a town. 6. 15th century CE: Maritime flag semaphores 7. 1672: First experimental acoustic (mechanical) telephone 8. 1790: Semaphore lines(optical telegraphs) 9. 1867: Signal lamps 10. 1877: Acoustic phonograph 11. 1900; optical picture
Basic electrical signals
1. 1838: Electrical telegraph. See: Telegraph history 2. 1830s: Beginning of attempts to develop "wireless telegraphy", systems using some form of ground, water, air or other media for conduction to eliminate the need for conducting wires. 3. 1858: First trans-Atlantic telegraph cable 4. 1876: Telephone. See: Invention of the telephone, History of the telephone, Timeline of the telephone 5. 1880: Telephony via lightbeam photophones
Advanced electrical and electronic signals
1. 1896: First practical wireless telegraphy systems based on Radio. See: History of radio. 2. 1900: first television displayed only black and white images. Over the next decades, colour television were invented, showing images that were clearer and in full colour. 3. 1914: First North American transcontinental telephone calling 4. 1927: Television. See: History of television 5. 1927: First commercial radio-telephone service, U.K.–U.S. 6. 1930: First experimental videophones 7. 1934: First co...
1. Wenzlhuemer, Roland. Connecting the Nineteenth-Century World: The Telegraph and Globalization. Cambridge University Press, 2013. ISBN 9781107025288Hilmes, Michele. Network Nations: A Transnational History of American and British Broadcasting(2011)John, Richard. Network Nation: Inventing American Telecommunications(Harvard U.P. 2010), emphasis on telephoneNoll, Michael. The Evolution of Media, 2007, Rowman & LittlefieldPoe, Marshall T. A History of Communications: Media and Society From the Evolution of Speech to the Internet(Cambridge University Press; 2011) 352 pages; Documents how successive forms of communica...Katz, Randy H., "History of Communications Infrastructures", Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department (EECS) Department, University of California, Berkeley.
A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes.. Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and business installations avoid the costly process of introducing cables into a building, or as a connection between various equipment locations.
This is a list of United States wireless communications service providers. The Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA), lists approximately 30 facilities-based wireless service providers in the United States as members. Competitive Carriers Association (CCA) has over 100 members.
CTIA was established in May 1984 as the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association. In 2000, the organization merged with the Wireless Data Forum and became the Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association. Its name was changed to CTIA—The Wireless Association in 2004.