Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus, an enveloped RNA virus 40–50 nm in width, the type species and namesake of the family Flaviviridae. It was the first illness shown to be transmissible by filtered human serum and transmitted by mosquitoes, by Walter Reed around 1900.
Yellow fever peaked in 1842, killing hundreds of people. There was an outbreak in Philadelphia in 1793. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. The name of the mosquito which commonly carries the virus is Aedes Aegypti. The female carries the disease. The yellow fever originated in Central Africa.
The Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793 struck during the summer in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where the highest fatalities in the United States were recorded.The disease probably was brought by refugees and mosquitoes on ships from Saint-Domingue.
- Wilbur Augustus Sawyer
- Key Terms
Yellow fever, which is also known as sylvatic fever and viral hemorrhagic fever or VHF, is a severe infectious disease caused by a type of virus called a flavivirus. This flavivirus can cause outbreaks of epidemic proportions throughout Africa and tropical America.The first written evidence of such an epidemic occurred in the Yucatan in 1648. Since that time, much has been learned about the interesting transmission patterns of this devastating illness. It is thought that the disease originate...
In order to understand how yellow fever is passed, several terms need to be defined. The word \\"host\\" refers to an animal that can be infected with a particular disease. The term \\"vector\\" refers to an organism which can carry a particular disease-causing agent (such as a virus or bacteria) without actually developing the disease. The vector can then pass the virus or bacterium on to a new host.Many of the common illnesses in the United States (including the common cold, many viral causes of di...
Wilbur Augustus Sawyer was born in Appleton, Wisconsin, on August 7, 1879, to Minnie Edmea (Birge) and Wesley Caleb Sawyer. The Sawyers moved to Oshkosh, Wisconsin and finally to Stockton, California in 1888. Sawyer spent two years at the University of California and then entered Harvard College where he earned his A.B. degree in 1902. In 1906, Sawyer graduated from Harvard Medical School and began a private practice, which lasted until he started his internship at Massachusetts General Hospi...
Once a mosquito has passed the yellow fever virus to a human, the chance of disease developing is about 5-20%. Infection may be fought off by the host's immune system, or may be so mild that it is never identified.In human hosts who develop the disease yellow fever, there are five distinct stages through which the infection evolves. These have been termed the periods of incubation, invasion, remission, intoxication, and convalescence.Yellow fever's incubation period (the amount of time betwee...
Diagnosis of yellow fever depends on the examination of blood by various techniques in order to demonstrate either yellow fever viral antigens (the part of the virus that stimulates the patient's immune system to respond) or specific antibodies (specific cells produced by the patient's immune system which are directed against the yellow fever virus). The most rapid method of diagnosis as of 2004 is capture enzyme immunoassay. The diagnosis can be strongly suspected when Faget's sign is presen...
There are no antiviral treatments available as of 2004 to combat the yellow fever virus, although researchers at the University of Texas are studying ribavirin (Virazole, Rebetol), a drug that is given by mouth to treat hepatitis C, as a potential treatment for liver damage caused by yellow fever. The only treatments for yellow fever are given to relieve its symptoms. Fevers and pain should be relieved with acetaminophen, not aspirin or ibuprofen, both of which could increase the already-pres...
Five to ten percent of all diagnosed cases of yellow fever are fatal. Jaundice occurring during a yellow fever infection is an extremely grave predictor. Twenty to fifty percent of these patients die of the infection. Death may occur due to massive bleeding (hemorrhage), often following a lapse into a comatose state.
A very safe and very effective yellow fever vaccine exists. The Arilvax vaccine is made from a live attenuated form of the yellow fever virus, strain 17D. In the United States, the vaccine is given only at Yellow Fever Vaccination Centers authorized by the U.S. Public Health Service. About 95% of vaccine recipients acquire long-term immunity to the yellow fever virus. Careful measures to decrease mosquito populations in both urban areas and jungle areas in which humans are working, along with...
Epidemic— A situation in which a particular disease spreads rapidly through a population of people in a relatively short period of time.Faget's sign— The simultaneous occurrence of a high fever with a slowed heart rate.Host— The organism (such as a monkey or human) in which another organism (such as a virus or bacteria) is living.Sylvatic— Pertaining to or living in the woods or forested areas. The form of yellow fever transmitted by mosquitoes to rainforest monkeys is called sylvatic yellow...
Beers, Mark H., MD, and Robert Berkow, MD., editors. \\"Viral Diseases.\\" Section 13, Chapter 162 In The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 2002.
Flaviviridae is a family of viruses.Humans and other mammals serve as natural hosts. They are primarily spread through arthropod vectors (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The family gets its name from the yellow fever virus, the type virus of Flaviviridae; flavus is Latin for "yellow", and yellow fever in turn was named because of its propensity to cause jaundice in victims.
Yellow fever, acute infectious disease characterized by fever, headache, backache, nausea, and vomiting. The skin and eyes may appear yellow, a condition known as jaundice, giving rise to the disease’s popular name. Yellow fever is caused by a flavivirus. Learn more about its transmission, treatment, and history.
Yellow fever has 3 stages: Stage 1 (infection): Headache, muscle and joint aches, fever, flushing, loss of appetite, vomiting, and jaundice are common. Symptoms often go away briefly after about 3 to 4 days. Stage 2 (remission): Fever and other symptoms go away. Most people will recover at this stage, but others may get worse within 24 hours.
Yellow Fever vaccine recommendations: South America Page last reviewed: January 15, 2019 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) , Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD)
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His domestic policies were focused on preventing famine with agrarian self-sufficiency and land reform, prioritising education with a nationwide literacy campaign and promoting public health by vaccinating 2.5 million children against meningitis, yellow fever and measles.