4 days ago · Epidemic typhus is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters. Typhus is rare in industrialized countries, and occurs primarily in the colder, mountainous regions of central and east Africa, as well as Central and South America.
- camp fever, jail fever, hospital fever, ship fever, famine fever, putrid fever, petechial fever, epidemic louse-borne typhus, louse-borne typhus
- What Is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
- Where Is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Prevalent?
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is the most serious tick-borne disease in the United States and is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, a type of bacteria known as rickettsia. These bacteria are transmitted to humans by the bite of certain hard ticks. The two most important species of ticks that can transmit R. rickettsii in the United States are Dermacentor variabilis (the American dog tick) and Dermacentor andersoni (Rocky Mountain wood tick). A third species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brow...
Although first recognized in the late 19th century in the Rocky Mountain region, by 1930s this disease was found to be present in the eastern portion of the country as well. The wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni), one of the main tick vectors is found in the Rocky Mountain states and southwestern Canada. The second major vector is the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis). This tick is distributed east of the Rocky Mountains and in some regions along the Pacific Coast. The cayenne tick (A...
Symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever usually appear 2 to 14 days (average of 7 days) after being bitten by the infected tick. Fever is often the first symptom experienced by patients. The classic triad of fever, rash and tick bite is present among many but not all cases at the initial visit to the physician. Nausea, vomiting, severe headache, muscle pain and lack of appetite are also sometimes reported by patients in the early stage of disease. Other clinical symptoms include abnormal pla...
Clinical diagnosis of RMSF is based on serological tests including detection of antibody titers via IFA, detection of the bacterial agent via culture or immunohistochemical staining of biopsies, and by detection of bacterial DNA in a clinical specimen via PCR. However, treatment decisions should not be delayed while waiting for confirmation with laboratory results. Patients with a relevant history and symptomology should be treated with the appropriate antibiotic regimen immediately. Since th...
Upon suspicion of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, treatment should begin immediately. Delay of treatment has been associated with fatal outcomes. Treatment with tetracycline or chloramphenicol antibiotics can be used to treat RMSF. Doxycycline (a tetrycycline) antibiotic is the treatment of choice for both adults and children. However doxycycline is not recommended for use by pregnant women. Current recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) include doxycycline th...
- What Is Tularemia?
- Where Is Tularemia Prevalent?
Tularemia (also known as rabbit fever) is caused by oval-shaped bacteria (coccobacilli) called Francisella tularensis. F. tularensis is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks, deer flies, contact with infected animals or infected carcasses, inhalation of air-borne bacteria, and ingestion of infected food or water. In the summer, most cases come from infected tick bites. In the winter, cases are reported by hunters who trap and skin infected animals. Person-to-person transmission...
Cases of tularemia have been reported across the United States with a concentration of reports in Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. From 1990 to 2000, there were 1,368 cases reported in the United States. On average, 124 cases per year were reported during this period of time. A cluster of cases were reported at Martha’s Vineyard (Massachusetts) in 2000. A study published by the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases showed that these cases were associated with landscaping work. Landscape worke...
Symptoms often appear abruptly three to five days after infection, but can take as long as two weeks to appear. A fever of 38°C to 40°C (100.4°F to 104°F) is the most common symptom. Other symptoms include joint pain, swelling of lymph nodes, headache, chills, dry cough, sore throat, ulcers at the site of infection, sore eyes, weakness, and diarrhea.There are several forms of tularemia, each specific to a particular route of entry by F. tularensis into the body. Ulceroglandular tularemia is t...
According to the CDC, a clinical diagnosis of F. tularensis can be confirmed by examining stained secretions, exudates, and biopsy specimens. The definitive confirmation of F. tularensis infection is growth of the bacteria in culture.
The CDC recommends intramuscular and intravenous antibiotic therapy for treatment of tularemia. A more detailed description of dosages recommended by the CDC can be found here. In summary, streptomycin is the recommended drug, with gentamicin serving as an alternative. The CDC recommends that these drugs be administered for 10 days. Both can be used in children and pregnant women.
6 days ago · Rocky Mountain spotted fever might produce petechiae on the wrists and ankles of children, but some youngsters never actually show outward signs. The disease is most commonly carried by ticks; when ticks bite people, they transfer bacteria from their saliva into the blood.
People also ask
What is Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
How long does Rocky Mountain spotted fever last?
Is spotted fever a CDC?
3 days ago · Symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever include headache, fever, chills, aches, pains, and sometimes nausea. These symptoms are usually accompanied by a rash that starts on the wrists and ankles. Early treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever with antibiotics can prevent severe illness, a person exhibiting any of these symptoms 2 to 14 days ...
6 days ago · The rocky mountain tick is similar in appearance to the brown dog tick, and it is a known carrier of another type of infection called Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Depending on their sex and type, ticks can expand to different sizes -- as big as a grape or as small as an apple seed -- when feeding on blood.
6 days ago · 4. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. RMSF or Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a contagious illness caused by bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii. A tick bite transmits the bacteria. The symptoms are a rash on wrist and ankles that spreads gradually to other parts of the body, high fever, headache, muscle pain, chills, vomiting and nausea. Treatment
6 days ago · COVID-19 symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, headache, sore throat, muscle pain, fatigue, new loss of taste and smell, and gastrointestinal illness. Not everyone experiences all symptoms, and it takes time for symptoms to develop. Oswego County has seen a drastic increase in COVID virus activity over the past week.
4 days ago · The Vatican is considering sainthood for five French priests who traveled to north Louisiana in the late 1800s to help a population suffering from yellow fever. Associated Press Nov. 21, 2020