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  1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Pictures and Long-Term Effects › rocky-mountain-spotted-fever

    Apr 13, 2017 · Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection spread by a bite from an infected tick. It causes vomiting, a sudden high fever around 102 or 103°F, headache, abdominal pain, rash ...

    • Jacquelyn Cafasso
  2. Picture of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever - WebMD › skin-problems-and-treatments

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This disease is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and is transmitted by a number of different ticks. Despite its geographical title, Rocky Mountain spotted fever is ...

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  4. Philadelphia Under Siege: The Yellow Fever of 1793 ... › literary-cultural
    • Volunteers collected the dead and dying from Yellow Fever. Over 5,000 residents of Philadelphia died in 1793 from the great epidemic of 1793. The summer was the hottest in years.
    • High magnification is required to see the real culprit of the yellow fever. Yellow fever is an acute, infectious, hemorrhagic (bleeding) viral disease transmitted by the bite of a female mosquito native to tropical and subtropical regions of South America and Africa.
    • While many died in Philadelphia, many who were able fled the city, including President George Washington. In the history of Pennsylvania, no city has ever faced its own mortality to the extent that Philadelphia suffered under the Yellow Fever affliction.
    • Dr. Rush mistakenly believed the origin of the 1793 epidemic in Philadelphia to be unsanitary conditions and rotten vegetables. Fear engulfed the city of Philadelphia.
  5. 1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic - Wikipedia › wiki › Yellow_Fever_Epidemic_of_1793
    • Beginnings
    • Epidemic Declared
    • Black Nurses
    • Controversy Over Treatment
    • Government Responses to Crisis
    • Reactions by Other Cities
    • Carey's Accusations
    • Response of Churches
    • End of The Epidemic
    • Lists of The Dead

    In the spring of 1793, French colonial refugees, some with slaves, arrived from Cap Français, Saint-Domingue (now Haiti). The 2,000 immigrants were fleeing the slave revolution in the north of the island. They crowded the port of Philadelphia, where the first yellow fever epidemic in the city in 30 years began in August. It is likely that the refugees and ships carried the yellow fever virusand mosquitoes. The virus is transmitted by mosquito bites. Mosquitoes easily breed in small amounts of standing water. The medical community and others in 1793 did not understand the role of mosquitoes in the transmission of yellow fever, malaria, and other diseases. In the ports and coastal areas of the United States, even in the northeast, the months of August and September were considered the "sickly season," when fevers were prevalent. In the South, planters and other people wealthy enough usually left the Low Country during this season. Natives thought that newcomers especially had to under...

    After two weeks and an increasing number of fever cases, Dr. Benjamin Rush, a doctor's apprentice during the city's 1762 yellow fever epidemic, saw the pattern; he recognized that yellow fever had returned. Rush alerted his colleagues and the government that the city faced an epidemic of "highly contagious, as well as mortal... bilious remitting yellow fever." Adding to the alarm was that, unlike with most fevers, the principal victims were not the very young or very old. Many of the early deaths were teenagers and heads of families in the dockside areas.Believing that the refugees from Saint-Domingue were carrying the disease, the city imposed a quarantine of two to three weeks on immigrants and their goods, but was unable to enforce it as the epidemic increased its reach. Then the largest city in the US, with around 50,000 residents, Philadelphia was relatively compact and most houses were within seven blocks of its major port on the Delaware River. Docking facilities extended fro...

    The College of Physicians' advisory implied the fever was contagious and people should avoid contact with its victims although "duty" required that they be cared for. Yet in families, when the person with the fever was a mother or father, they could forbid their children from coming near them. Rush knew of Dr. John Lining's observation during the 1742 yellow fever epidemic in Charleston, South Carolina, that African slaves appeared to be affected at rates lower than whites; he thought they had a natural immunity. Writing a short letter to the newspapers under the pseudonym "Anthony Benezet," a Quaker who had provided schooling for blacks, Rush suggested that the city's people of color had immunity and solicited them "to offer your services to attend the sick to help those known in distress." Richard Allen and Absalom Jonesrecalled their reaction to the letter in a memoir they published shortly after the epidemic: Allen noted in his account that because of the increase in mortality,...

    Given the limited resources and knowledge of the times, the city's response was credible. The medical community did not know the natural history of yellow fever, a viral infection spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Efforts to clean the city did not defeat the spread of the fever, as the mosquitoes bred in clean water, too. Philadelphia's newspapers continued to publish during the epidemic, and through the doctors and others tried to understand and combat the epidemic. On September 7, Dr. Adam Kuhn advised patients to treat symptoms as they arose; he had studied medicine at the University of Uppsalain Sweden. Rush claimed that he tried Kuhn's and Steven's stimulating remedies, and his patients still died. He recommended other treatments, including purging and bloodletting, and published his theories. The hope offered by any of these treatments was soon dashed when it became clear that they did not cure the disease, and the doctors' competing claims demoralized patients. In his 179...

    The responses of the various levels of government in the city varied. The Federal government had no authority to act and Congress had not been in session since June. President Washington and his cabinet continued to meet until he left the city on September 10 for his scheduled vacation, a period that included laying the cornerstone on September 18 of the new US Capitol to be built in the City of Washington, the designated capital. Employees of the Treasury Department, who collected customs and worked on the country's financial system, worked throughout the epidemic; the post office also stayed open.[citation needed] The state legislature cut short its September session after a dead body was found on the steps of State House. Governor Mifflin became ill and was advised by his doctor to leave. The city's banks remained open. But, banking operations were so slowed by the inability of people to pay off notes because of disruptions from the epidemic that banks automatically renewed notes...

    As the death toll in the city rose, officials in neighboring communities and major port cities such as New York and Baltimore established quarantines for refugees and goods from Philadelphia. New York established a "Committee appointed to prevent the spreading and introduction of infectious diseases in this city", which set up citizen patrols to monitor entry to the city. Stage coaches from Philadelphia were not allowed in many cities. Havre de Grace, Maryland, for example, tried to prevent people from Philadelphia from crossing the Susquehanna River to Maryland.Neighboring cities did send food supplies and money; for example, New York City sent $5000 to the Mayor's Committee. Woodbury and Springfield, New Jersey; Chester, Pennsylvania and Elkton, Maryland, were among towns that accepted refugees. President Washington corresponded with members of his cabinet on where to assemble if the epidemic prevented Congress from meeting as scheduled in December. Washington decided to hold the...

    In his 1793 account of the epidemic, Mathew Carey contrasted the sacrifices of men like Joseph Inskeep, a Quaker who served on the Mayor's Committee and also visited the sick, with the selfishness of others. When Inskeep contracted the fever, he asked for the assistance of a family whom he had attended when several of its members were sick. They refused. He died, which might well have happened even if they had aided him. Carey reported their refusal. He published rumors of greed, especially by landlords who threw convalescing tenants into the street to gain control of their flats. While he praised Richard Allen and Absalom Jones for their work,he suggested that blacks had caused the epidemic, and that some black nurses had charged high fees and even stolen from those for whom they cared. Allen and Jones quickly wrote a pamphlet to defend the people of color in the crisis. The historian Julie Winch believes they wanted to defend their community, knowing how powerful Carey was, and wa...

    Church clergy continued to hold services, which helped keep up residents' morale. Rev. J. Henry C. Helmuth, who led the city's German Lutheran congregation, wrote A Short Account of the Yellow Fever in Philadelphia for the Reflecting Christian.He also left a diary. On September 16 he reported that his church was "very full" the day before. In one week in October, 130 members of his congregation were buried. On October 13, he wrote in his diary: The Yearly Meeting of the Society of Friends at the Arch Street Meeting House drew 100 attendees, most from outside the city. The meetinghouse is not far from the waterfront where the epidemic had started. In their Yearly Epistle following the meeting, the Friends wrote that to have changed the time or place of the meeting would have been a "haughty attempt" to escape "the rod" of God, from which there was no escape. The Quaker John Todd, who attended the meeting, contracted the fever and died of it. His young widow, Dolley Payne Todd, later...

    Doctors, preachers, and laymen all looked to the coming of autumn to end the epidemic. At first they hoped a seasonal "equinoctial gale," or hurricane, common at that time of year, would blow away the fever. Instead, heavy rains in late September seemed to correlate with a higher rate of cases. Residents next anticipated freezing temperatures at night, which they knew were associated with ending fall fevers, but not why this was so. By the first two weeks of October, which was the peak of the crisis, gloom pervaded the city. Most churches had stopped holding services, and the post office moved out of the area of the highest number of cases. The market days continued, and bakers continued to make and distribute bread.Several members of the Mayor's Committee died. African-American nurses had also begun dying of the fever. Carts took ill victims to Bush Hill and the dead to burial grounds. Doctors also suffered illness and death, and fewer were available to care for patients. Three of...

    An official register of deaths listed 4044 people as dying between August 1 and November 9, 1793 based on grave counts, so the total was probably higher. City officials, medical and religious leaders, and newspaper publishers reported the number and names of victims, based on the minutes of the Mayor's Committee. The Appendix of the on-line edition of Minutes lists the names of all the patients admitted to Bush Hill hospital, as well as the disposition of their cases. The publisher Mathew Carey released his history of the epidemic just weeks after its end. He listed the names of the dead at the back of the book, which is one reason it was a bestseller. While Devèze did not reveal his patients' names in describing his treatments, Rush named his patients in his memoir.[citation needed]

  6. The Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793 › common › pages

    The Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793 The Yellow Fever epidemic of 1793 was a gruesome and horrible disease. It took over 5,000 lives from August 1 to November 9. This shocking statistic reveals that it is one of the most deadly epidemics in U.S. history. To this day there is no cure for Yellow Fever, because it's a viral disease,

  7. Exhibit documents yellow fever epidemic of 1793 | University ... › exhibit-documents-yellow-fever

    Dec 01, 2006 · EDITORS: Photos available on request. ANN ARBOR—The University of Michigan’s Clements Library is exhibiting newspaper accounts, maps, engravings, minute books, pamphlets and personal letters documenting the horrendous yellow fever epidemic that struck Philadelphia in 1793, killing 5,000 people, roughly 10 percent of the city’s population, in only three months.

  8. May 07, 2019 · Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial disease spread through the bite of an infected tick. Most people who get sick with RMSF will have a fever, headache, and rash. RMSF can be deadly if not treated early with the right antibiotic. Transmission. Signs and Symptoms.

  9. What the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793 Revealed About America ... › lessons-from-history › what-the-yellow

    Mar 26, 2020 · Yellow fever is a brutal disease that afflicted much of the United States in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; it still kills tens of thousands every year in some parts of the world. In 1793

  10. Feb 19, 2019 · Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial disease spread through the bite on an infected tick. Information on the signs and symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link

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