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  1. The Industrial Revolution begins in Great Britain. About 1764 James Hargreaves conceives the idea for a yarn-spinning machine called the spinning jenny (which he patents in 1770). Another influential innovation is James Watt ’s steam engine. In 1764, while repairing a Newcomen steam engine, Watt notices that it wastes a lot of steam.

    • Key Facts

      Industrial RevolutionEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc./Kenny...

    • When Was The Industrial Revolution?
    • Spinning Jenny
    • Impact of Steam Power
    • Transportation During The Industrial Revolution
    • Banking and Communication in The Industrial Revolution
    • Labor Movement
    • The Industrial Revolution in The United States
    • Effects of The Industrial Revolution
    • Sources

    Though a few innovations were developed as early as the 1700s, the Industrial Revolution began in earnest by the 1830s and 1840s in Britain, and soon spread to the rest of the world, including the United States. Modern historians often refer to this period as the First Industrial Revolution, to set it apart from a second period of industrialization...

    Thanks in part to its damp climate, ideal for raising sheep, Britain had a long history of producing textiles like wool, linen and cotton. But prior to the Industrial Revolution, the British textile business was a true “cottage industry,” with the work performed in small workshops or even homes by individual spinners, weavers and dyers. Starting in...

    An icon of the Industrial Revolution broke onto the scene in the early 1700s, when Thomas Newcomen designed the prototype for the first modern steam engine. Called the “atmospheric steam engine,” Newcomen’s invention was originally applied to power the machines used to pump water out of mine shafts. In the 1760s, Scottish engineer James Wattbegan t...

    Britain’s road network, which had been relatively primitive prior to industrialization, soon saw substantial improvements, and more than 2,000 miles of canals were in use across Britain by 1815. In the early 1800s, Richard Trevithick debuted a steam-powered locomotive, and in 1830 similar locomotives started transporting freight (and passengers) be...

    In 1776, Scottish social philosopher Adam Smith, who is regarded as the founder of modern economics, published The Wealth of Nations. In it, Smith promoted an economic system based on free enterprise, the private ownership of means of production, and lack of government interference. Banks and industrial financiers soon rose to new prominence during...

    WATCH VIDEO: Yohuru Williams on the Labor Movement Though many people in Britain had begun moving to the cities from rural areas before the Industrial Revolution, this process accelerated dramatically with industrialization, as the rise of large factories turned smaller towns into major cities over the span of decades. This rapid urbanization broug...

    The beginning of industrialization in the United States is usually pegged to the opening of a textile mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 1793 by the recent English immigrant Samuel Slater. Slater had worked at one of the mills opened by Richard Arkwright (inventor of the water frame) mills, and despite laws prohibiting the emigration of textile wo...

    Historians continue to debate many aspects of industrialization, including its exact timeline, why it began in Britain as opposed to other parts of the world and the idea that it was actually more of a gradual evolution than a revolution. The positives and negatives of the Industrial Revolution are complex. On one hand, unsafe working conditions we...

    Robert C. Allen, The Industrial Revolution: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007 Claire Hopley, “A History of the British Cotton Industry.” British Heritage Travel, July 29, 2006 William Rosen, The Most Powerful Idea in the World: A Story of Steam, Industry, and Invention. New York: Random House, 2010 Gavin Weightman, Th...

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  2. This process began in Britain in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of the world. Although used earlier by French writers, the term Industrial Revolution was first popularized by the English economic historian Arnold Toynbee (1852–83) to describe Britain’s economic development from 1760 to 1840.

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  4. The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe, and the United States, that occurred during the period from around 1760 to about 1820–1840. [1]

  5. Mar 16, 2018 · The industrial revolution occurred in two distinct phases: the first industrial revolution, between 1750 and 1850, and the second industrial revolution, between 1850 and 1914. Furthermore, the industrial revolution originated in Great Britain and spread across the world in three waves:

  6. Industrial Revolution Definition . The industrial revolution refers to a period of major economic transitions through new production processes. Over less than a century, from the late 1700s to somewhere before the 1840s, the First Industrial Revolution that started in Great Britain brought many innovations that introduced the economic shift from agriculture to mass industries.

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