Albania, officially the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeastern Europe.It is located on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea and shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, Greece to the south; and maritime borders with Greece, Montenegro and Italy to the west.
- Armed Forces
- Flora and Fauna
Albania was the southern part of Illyria during the Roman Empire. In the Middle Ages the Albanians were ruled by many foreign countries, including the Byzantine and Venetian Empires and during the 16th century resistance to the Ottoman Empire's rule was led by the Albanian national hero Skanderberg but his real name was Gjergj Kastrioti. After four centuries of Turkish domination, finally in the 20th century an independent Albania was created. In 1939 Albania was conquered by fascist Italy and was part of the Kingdom of Italy until 1943. After World War II Albania became independent again, under communist rule. It was ruled by Enver Hoxha, who died in 1985. Ramiz Alia took over and also later became President when, in 1992, Albania returned to democracy, and it now has friendly relations with the European Union, which it has applied to join.
The Albanian Armed Forces were first formed after independence in 1912. Albania reduced the number of active troops from 65,000 in 1988 to 14,500 in 2009.The military now is mostly a small fleet of aircraft and sea vessels.
Albania has a total area of 28,748 square kilometers. Albania's coastline length is 476 km (296 mi).:240 It goes along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. On the coast there are mild, wet winters and warm, sunny, and rather dry summers. 70% of the country is mountains. The highest mountain is Korab. Albania is bordered by Greece, the Republic of North Macedonia, Montenegro and Kosovo. A short stretch of sea separates Albania from the far southeast of Italy.
Although a small country, Albania has a lot of variety in plants and animals. The total number of plants is over 3250 species. There are over 350 bird species, 330 freshwater and marine fish and 80 mammal species. The Golden Eagleis the national symbol of Albania.
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The history of Albania forms a part of the history of Europe. During classical antiquity, Albania was home to several Illyrian tribes such as the Ardiaei, Albanoi, Amantini, Enchele, Taulantii and many others, but also Thracian and Greek tribes, as well as several Greek colonies established on the Illyrian coast.
- Development and usage
- Kanun in literature and film
The Kanun or Doke is a set of traditional Albanian laws. The Kanun initially was oral and it was published in writing only in the 20th century. The Kanun of Lekë Dukagjini was codified in the 15th century. The word "Kanun" comes from the Greek word "canon". Six later variations eventually evolved: The Old Kanun; The Kanun of Mirdita; The Kanun of Pukë; The Kanun of Çermenikë; The Kanun of Pope Julius; The Kanun of Labëria; The Kanun of Skanderbeg also known as The Kanun of Arbëria...
The term kanun comes from the Greek "κανών", meaning amongst others "pole" or "rule" and was transported from Greek to Arabic and then into early Turkish. It must have been divulgated during the Ottoman rule. It was so widely used that when something was legal it was said to be "kanun", and when not legal, "the kanun doesn't give it". The consuetudinary law was called "kanun". Baroness Von Godin thought it was the Ottomans that gave the name kanun and that the Albanian name Lek was ...
British anthropologist and writer Edith Durham has suggested that the practice of oral laws that Lekë Dukagjini codified in the Kanun date back to the Bronze Age. Other authors have conjectured that the Kanun may derive from ancient Illyrian tribal laws. Still other authors have suggested that the Kanun retains elements from Indo-European prehistoric eras. Several stratifications can be observed in the code, however, beginning with pre-Indo-European, Indo-European, Ancient Greek, Ancient Roman,
The Kanun of Lek Dukagjini was named after Lekë Dukagjini, a medieval prince who ruled in northern Albania and codified the customary laws of the highlands. The code was written down only in the 19th century by Shtjefën Gjeçovi and partially published in the Hylli i Drites periodical in 1913. The full version appeared only in 1933 after Gjeçovi's death in 1926. In 1989 a dual English-Albanian version was published. and then replicated in a 1992 version. Although the laws are attributed ...
Albanian writer Ismail Kadare evokes the Kanun several times in his books, and it is the main theme in his novel Broken April. He also evoques the kanun in his novel Komisioni i festës, where Kadare literally describes the Monastir massacre of 1830 as the struggle between two empires: the Albanian Kanun with its code of besa and the Ottoman Empire itself. According to Kadare in his literary critique book Eskili, ky humbës i madh, where loser refers to the great number of tragedies that ...
The cities and towns in Albania belong to the following size ranges in terms of the number of inhabitants: 1 city larger than 250,000: Tirana. 7 cities from 50,000 to 250,000: Durrës, Fier, Elbasan, Kamëz, Korçë, Shkodër and Vlorë. 4 cities from 20,000 to 50,000: Berat, Lushnjë, Pogradec and Kavajë.
2. "Albanian is an Indo-European language, but like modern Greek and Armenian, it does not have any other closely related living language. Within the Indo-European family, it forms a group of its own. In Albanian, the language is called shqip. Albania is called Shqipëri, and the Albanians call themselves shqiptarë.