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Finland covers an area of 338,455 square kilometres (130,678 sq mi), with a population of 5.5 million. Helsinki is the country's capital and largest city, but together with the neighboring cities of Espoo, Kauniainen and Vantaa, it forms a larger metropolitan area.
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The people of Finland are called Finns. Most Finns speak Finnish as their mother tongue. About six percent of Finns have the Swedish language as their mother tongue. They live mostly in the western part of Finland and on Åland(Finnish Ahvenanmaa) Finns also study mandatory English and Swedish in school. Most Finns work either in services (that is: shops, banks, offices or businesses) or in factories. Finns often like saunas and nature. Many Finnish families have summer cottages, small houses where they go to relax on their summer holidays. The most important festivals that Finnish people celebrate are Midsummer and Christmas. The most popular sports in Finland are ice hockey, skiing, track and field and association football (soccer). Finns have also won events in swimming, motor sports and gymnastics. There is a group of a few thousand Samis (also called Lapps) in the most northern part of Finland, called Lapland. Most of the Samis live in Norway and Sweden. Many Sami people farm re...
Most of Finland is covered by pine forest. The swan, which was considered holy long ago, is the national bird of Finland. Wood is the most important natural resource of Finland. It is estimated that up to one-third of all wood resources of the European Unionare in Finland. The national animal of Finland is the brown bear. The largest animal is the elk, a type of moose, which is a member of the deer family. There are hundreds of rivers and thousands of fresh water lakes. Fishing is a popular sport. It is estimated there are almost 180,000 lakes in Finland. Many islands in the Baltic Sea belong to Finland, too. Thousands of islands are part of the Åland archipelago. Tourists from all over the world come to see the fells and the northern lights in Lapland. The highest mountain of Finland is Halti, which is 1328 meters high. The largest lake is Saimaa, 4,400 square kilometres. The longest river of Finland is Tornionjoki. The largest river (by watershed) is Kemijoki, 552 kilometres long....
People first came to Finland 10,000 years ago. That was just after an ice age, after a glacier that covered the ground had receded. Some think the first people in Finland already spoke a language similar to the Finnish language that is spoken today. It is known that an early form of the Finnish language was spoken in Finland in the Iron Age. (The Iron Age in Finland was 2,500–800 years ago). The first residents in Finland hunted animals, as "hunter-gatherers". Some people started to farmcrops about 5,200 years ago. Farming slowly became more and more popular and became the major way of life until the modern age. The ancient Finns were pagans. The most important god of the Finnish pantheon was Ukko. He was a god of sky and thunder, much like Odin, another Scandinavian god-king. These powers were common among the pagan god kings in pantheons ranging from the Finnish Ukko, to the Scandinavian/Germanic/Saxon Odin, all the way east to Zeusof the Greeks and Jupiter of the Romans. Around a...
Finland has a mixed economy. Free marketcontrols most of production and sales of goods, but public sector is involved in services. In 2013, taxes were 44% of gross national product. This is 4th largest in Europe, after Denmark, France and Belgium. In 2014 services were 70% of the gross national product. The largest company in 2014 was oil refinery Neste Oil. The second largest was Nokia. Two forest industries Stora Enso and UPM-Kymmene, were numbers three and four. Number five was Keskowhich sells everyday goods in K-supermarkets.
Elections are organized to select 200 members to the Parliament of Finland. Also selected are the president of Finland, members of town and city councils and Finnish members to the European Parliament. The elections are secret and direct. People vote directly for the person they want to be elected. In presidential elections votes are only cast for a person, not for a political party. All the other elections are proportional. The system is a combination of voting for individuals and parties.The right to vote is universal and equal. In general elections everybody has one vote.
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The Finnish national awakening in the mid-19th century was the result of members of the Swedish-speaking upper classes deliberately choosing to promote Finnish culture and language as a means of nation building, i.e. to establish a feeling of unity among all people in Finland including (and not of least importance) between the ruling elite and ...
Demographics of Finland. Population pyramid 2018. Population densities in Finland, inhabitants per square kilometre. Finland has a population of over 5.53 million people and an average population density of 19 inhabitants per square kilometre. This makes it the third most sparsely populated country in Europe, after Iceland and Norway.
Finland, offeecially the Republic o Finland,, is a Nordic kintra situatit in the Fennoscandie region o Northren Europe. Wastlins, it haes a mairch wi Swaden, norlins wi Norawa an eastlins wi Roushie, while Estonie lees soothlins athort the Gulf o Finland. Aroond 5.4 million fowk reside in Finland, wi the majority concentratit in the soothren region. It is the aicht lairgest kintra in Europe in terms o aurie an the maist sparsely populatit kintra in the European Union. Finland is a pairliamentary
Finland är en representativ demokrati, vars lagstiftande församling, riksdagen, en genom direkta och proportionella val vald enkammarriksdag, företräder folket. Val sker regelbundet vart fjärde år i mars. Finlands regering kallas statsrådet (fi. valtioneuvosto) och leds av en statsminister.
- The Evangelical Lutheran Church
- Finnish Orthodox Church
- Catholic Church in Finland
- Finnish Neopaganism
Finland is a predominantly Christian nation where 67.8% of the 5.5 million overall population are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, 29.4% are unaffiliated, 1.1% are Orthodox Christians, 0.9% are other christians and 0.8% follow other religions like Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, folk religion etc. There are presently two National churches: the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, which is the primary religion representing 67.8% of the population by the end of 2020, a
In 2020, the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Finland had about 3.7 million members, which is 67.8% of the population, registered with a parish. The Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Finland is an episcopal church, that is governed by bishops, with a very strong tradition of parish autonomy. It comprises nine dioceses with ten bishops and 384 independent parishes. The average parish has 7,000 members, with the smallest parishes comprising only a few hundred members and the largest tens of thousands.
The Finnish Orthodox Church, or Orthodox Church of Finland, is an autonomous Eastern Orthodox archdiocese of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. The Church has a legal position as a national church in the country, along with the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. With its roots in the medieval Novgorodian missionary work in Karelia, the Finnish Orthodox Church was a part of the Russian Orthodox Church until 1923. Today the church has three dioceses and 60,000 members that account
The Catholic Church in Finland is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome. As of 2019 there are more than 14,000 registered Catholics in Finland of total 5.5 million population of the whole country and also estimated about 10,000 unregistered Catholics in the country. There are estimated to be more than 6,000 Catholic families in the country, about half native Finns and the rest from international communities. As of 2018 there are only five Finni
Finnish Neopaganism, or the Finnish native faith is the contemporary Neopagan revival of Finnish paganism, the pre-Christian polytheistic ethnic religion of the Finns. A precursor movement was the Ukonusko of the early 20th century. The main problem in the revival of Finnish paganism is the nature of pre-Christian Finnish culture, which relied on oral tradition and of which very little is left. The primary sources concerning Finnish native culture are written by latter-era Christians. There are
The Finnish Government (Finnish: Suomen valtioneuvosto; Swedish: Finlands statsråd; lit. 'Finland's council of state')   is the executive branch and cabinet of Finland , which directs the politics of Finland and is the main source of legislation proposed to the Parliament .GovernmentTook officeSeatsPartiesMarin's Cabinet Incumbent10 December 2019117/200Social Democratic Party Centre Party ...6 June 2019117/200Social Democratic Party Centre Party ...29 May 2015124/200 105/200Centre Party Finns Party (−2017) National ...24 June 2014112/200 102/200National Coalition Party Social ...
- Winter War
- Interim peace
- Continuation War
- Moscow armistice
Finland participated in the Second World War initially in a defensive war against the Soviet Union, followed by another battle against the Soviet Union acting in concert with Nazi Germany and then finally fighting alongside the Allies against Nazi Germany. The first two major conflicts in which Finland was directly involved were the defensive Winter War against an invasion by the Soviet Union in 1939, followed by the Continuation War, together with Germany and the other Axis Powers against the S
In 1809, the Russian Empire took Finland from Sweden in the Finnish War. Finland entered a personal union with the Russian Empire as a grand duchy with extensive autonomy. During the period of Russian rule the country generally prospered. On 6 December 1917, during the Russian Ci
After the extinction of the Hohenzollern monarchy on 9 November 1918, Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became independent, German troops left Finland and British ships cruised in the Baltic. Mannerheim was elected regent by the Eduskunta and Finnish policy became pro-Entente
During the Winter War period, the relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense. Some elements in Finland maintained the dream of "Greater Finland" which included the Soviet-controlled part of Karelia. The proximity of the Finnish border to Leningrad caused worry in the Soviet leadership. On 23 August 1939 Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. A secret clause of this agreement marked Finland as part of the Soviet sphere of influence. On 12 ...
The period of peace following the Winter War was widely regarded in Finland as temporary, even when peace was announced in March 1940. A period of frantic diplomatic efforts and rearmament followed. The Soviet Union kept up intense pressure on Finland, thereby hastening the Finnish efforts to improve the security of the country. Defensive arrangements were attempted with Sweden and Great Britain, but the political and military situation in the context of the Second World War rendered these effor
During the summer and autumn of 1941 the Finnish Army was on the offensive, retaking the territories lost in the Winter War. The Finnish army also advanced further, especially in the direction of Lake Onega,, closing the blockade of the city of Leningrad from the north, and occupying Eastern Karelia, which had never been a part of Finland before. This resulted with Stalin asking Roosevelt for help in restoring peaceful relations between Finland and the Soviet Union on 4 August 1941. Finland's re
The Moscow armistice was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 19 September 1944 ending the Continuation War, though the final peace treaty was not to be signed until 1947 in Paris. The conditions for peace were similar to those previously agreed in the 1940 Moscow Peace Treaty, with Finland being forced to cede parts of Finnish Karelia, a part of Salla and islands in the Gulf of Finland. The new armistice also handed the whole of Petsamo over to the Soviet Union. Finland also agreed to lega
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