The Nordic countries are generally considered to refer to Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, including their associated territories (Greenland, the Faroe Islands and the Åland Islands). The term "Nordic countries" found mainstream use after the advent of Foreningen Norden.
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Nordic countries are a group of countries in Northern Europe. These countries include Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Sweden, Norway, and the territories of the Aland Islands and the Faroe Islands. Though often confused as such, Scandinavia is not equivalent to the Nordic countries. Scandinavia is a peninsula while the Nordic countries are recognized states.
The Nordic countries is a term used collectively for five countries in Northern Europe, plus the Faroe Islands. The Nordic countries have an aggregate population of about 24 million. The Nordic Countries are also the member countries of the Nordic Council: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden .
Nordic Council ECHR European Union EEA EFTA NATO OECD a United Nations WTO; Denmark 5 May 1949 Yes Yes 1973 Yes No 4 April 1949 30 May 1961 24 October 1945 Yes Finland 5 May 1989 Yes Yes 1995 Yes No No 20 January 1969 14 December 1955 Yes Iceland 7 March 1950 Yes Yes No Yes Yes 4 April 1949 5 June 1961 19 November 1946 Yes Norway 5 May 1949 Yes ...
Scandinavia (/ ˌ s k æ n d ɪ ˈ n eɪ v i ə / SKAN-dih-NAY-vee-ə) is a subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties.. In English usage, Scandinavia can refer to Denmark, Norway and Sweden, sometimes more narrowly to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or more broadly to include the Åland Islands, the Faroe Islands, Finland and Iceland.
- Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Sometimes also:, Åland Islands, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Nordic territories that are not part of Scandinavia:, Bouvet Island, Greenland, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
- .dk, .no, .se, .ax, .fi, .fo, .gl, .is, .sj
- Seasonal conditions
- Global warming
The climate of the Nordic countries is that of a region in Northern Europe that consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories, which include the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland. Stockholm, Sweden has on average the warmest summer of the Nordic capitals, with an average maximum temperature of 23 °C in July; Copenhagen, Oslo and Helsinki have an average July maximum temperature of 22 °C.
In Denmark, January temperatures average between −2 °C and 4 °C. Denmark's coldest month, however, is February, where the mean temperature is 0 °C. The number of hours of sunlight per day does increase during the month of February for Denmark, where they get seven to ...
In Iceland, spring brings warmer and milder temperatures. In the month of May, the average temperature is somewhere between 4 °C and 10 °C.
Denmark's warmest month is July, where the mean temperature is 17 °C. In Iceland, occasionally thunderstorms occur in the south in late summertime, due to warm air being deflected to northern latitudes from warm air masses in other parts of Europe. Also, cold air ...
Greenland is one of the areas in both the Nordic region and the world most affected by climate change. A July 2006 study completed by "The Journal of Climate", determined that the melting of Greenland's ice sheets was the single largest contributor to global sea-level rise. The t
Scientists estimate that should the current rate of climate change continue, Greenland's ice sheet, which contains 630,000 cubic miles of ice, could melt and cause global sea level to rise by 23 ft. Some climate experts have estimated that Greenland could be losing 80 cubic miles
The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories which include the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland.
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The Nordic model traces its foundation to the "grand compromise" between workers and employers spearheaded by farmer and worker parties in the 1930s. Following a long period of economic crisis and class struggle, the "grand compromise" served as the foundation for the post-World War II Nordic model of welfare and labor market organization. The key characteristics of the Nordic model were the centralized coordination of wage negotiation between employers and labor organizations, termed a social partnership, as well as providing a peaceful means to address class conflict between capital and labor. Although often linked to social democratic governance, the Nordic model's parentage actually stems from a mixture of mainly social democratic, centrist, and right-wingpolitical parties, especially in Finland and Iceland, along with the social trust that emerged from the "great compromise" between capital and labor. The influence of each of these factors on each Nordic country varied as socia...
The Nordic model has been characterised as follows: 1. An elaborate social safety net, in addition to public services such as free education and universal healthcare in a largely tax-funded system. 2. Strong property rights, contract enforcement and overall ease of doing business. 3. Public pensionplans. 4. Free trade combined with collective risk sharing (social programmes and labour marketinstitutions) which has provided a form of protection against the risks associated with economic openness. 5. Little product market regulation. Nordic countries rank very high in product market freedom according to OECDrankings. 6. Low levels of corruption. In Transparency International's 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden were ranked among the top 10 least corrupt of the 179 countries evaluated. 7. High percentage of workers belonging to a labour union. In 2016, labour union density was 89% in Iceland, 66% in Denmark, 67% in Sweden, 65% in Finland and 49% in N...
The Nordic model has been positively received by some American politicians and political commentators. Jerry Mander has likened the Nordic model to a kind of "hybrid" system which features a blend of capitalist economics with socialist values, representing an alternative to American-style capitalism. Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders has pointed to Scandinavia and the Nordic model as something the United States can learn from, in particular with respect to the benefits and social protections the Nordic model affords workers and its provision of universal healthcare. According to Naomi Klein, former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sought to move the Soviet Unionin a similar direction to the Nordic system, combining free markets with a social safety net, but still retaining public ownership of key sectors of the economy—ingredients that he believed would transform the Soviet Union into "a socialist beacon for all mankind". The Nordic model has also been positively received by various soc...Alestalo, Matti; Hort, Sven E. O.; Kuhnle, Stein (June 2009). "The Nordic Model: Conditions, Origins, Outcomes, Lessons". Working Papers. Hertie School of Governance (41). 55860282.Blyth, Mark (2001). "The Transformation of the Swedish Model: Economic Ideas, Distributional Conflict, and Institutional Change". World Politics. 54 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1353/wp.2001.0020. S2CID 15491...Booth, Michael (2015). The Almost Nearly Perfect People: Behind the Myth of the Scandinavian Utopia. London: Vintage Books. ISBN 9780099546078.Brandal, Nikolai; Bratberg, Øivind; Thorsen, Dag Einar (2013). The Nordic Model of Social Democracy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137013262."The Nordic Way". Archived 4 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Davos: World Economic Forum. January 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2019.Thorsen, Dag Einar; Brandal, Nik; Bratberg, Øivind (8 April 2013). Utopia sustained: "The Nordic model of social democracy". Fabian Society. Retrieved 3 December 2019."The secret of their success". The Economist. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2019.Sanders, Bernie (26 July 2013). "What Can We Learn From Denmark?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
「欧」とは「欧州・欧羅巴（ヨーロッパ）」の意であり、日本語では「北欧」と「北ヨーロッパ」に明確な字義の違いはなく、しばしば同義語とされる。 ノルウェー、スウェーデン、デンマーク、フィンランドに、バルト三国（エストニア、ラトヴィア、リトアニア）、ブリテン諸島、アイスランドを含む。 日本では、北欧諸国と表記する場合もある。 1. 北欧諸国 (オレンジ・赤) 及びスカンディナヴィアの君主制諸国 (赤) 2. フェノスカンジア 3. バレンツ地方 4. 北欧の衛星画像
次の五ヶ国三地域が北欧理事会 (Nordic Council) 加盟国となっている。 1. スウェーデン 2. デンマーク(デンマーク王国構成国) 3. グリーンランド（デンマーク王国構成国） 4. フェロー諸島（デンマーク王国構成国） 5. ノルウェー 6. フィンランド 7. オーランド諸島（フィンランド領） 8. アイスランド このうちスウェーデン、デンマーク、ノルウェーの三ヶ国は特にスカンディナヴィアと呼ばれる。ただし、現代の北欧の人々は外交上あるいは学術上といった公的な場を除いて、北欧 (Nordic) とスカンディナヴィアを峻別せず混同することが多い。
北欧諸国は、歴史・文化・社会等に共通点が多い。 言語・民族的には、フィンランド・バルト三国を除き、北ゲルマン語を話す北ゲルマン系民族である。北ゲルマン語は北欧語・ノルディック語・ノルド語とも呼ばれ、非常に似ているデンマーク語・スウェーデン語・ノルウェー語・アイスランド語およびフェロー語等の総称である。また逆に、北ゲルマン語は北欧諸国以外ではほとんど話されず、北ゲルマン系民族は北欧諸国以外にはほとんど居住しない。 フィンランドの多数民族はウラル系のスオミ人である。スオミ人の固有の文化はゲルマン民族とは大きく違い、隣国ロシア国境地帯のカレリア人やフィンランド湾対岸のエストニア人と共通点が多い。しかし、フィンランドは旧スウェーデン領なので北ゲルマン文化の影響を強く受け、少数民族としてスウェーデン系フィンランド人もおり、スオミ語だけでなくスウェーデン語も公用語になっている。 また、ノルウェー、スウェーデン、フィンランド（およびロシア）の北部一帯のラップランドに、やはりウラル系のサーミが少数民族として住む。グリーンランドにはエスキモー系のカラーリットが住み、デンマーク全体では少数民族だがグリーンランドでは多数民族である。 宗教は、キリスト教プロテスタント系のルーテル教会の割合が非常に高い。 国旗は「スカンディナヴィア十字」と呼ばれる左寄りの十字を使っている国が多い。
近世まではデンマーク、ノルウェー、スウェーデンの3国が北欧諸国だった。ただし、地域としては現在のアイスランド（旧デンマーク領）やフィンランド（旧スウェーデン領）も含み、ソ連崩壊後は独立したバルト三国も含むようになった。 1. カルマル同盟 2. バルト帝国 3. ノルディックバランス