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  1. Public schools in the United States of America provide basic education from kindergarten until the twelfth grade. This is provided free of charge for the students and parents, but is paid for by taxes on property owners as well as general taxes collected by the federal government. This education is mandated by the states.

  2. State school (known as a "public school" in some countries), a no-fee school, funded and operated by the government; Public university, in some countries, e.g. the United States, any university operated by the government as opposed to a privately owned organization; Public school (India), a group of historically elite fee-charging privately owned and managed schools in India

  3. › wiki › State_schoolState school - Wikipedia

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    Government schools (also known as public schools) are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools usually charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: open and selective schools. The open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas, whereas selective schools admit students based on some specific criteria, e.g. academic merit. Government schools educate approximately 65% of Australian students, with approximately 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory. The curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious educationcan be taught. Most school students wear uniforms.

    Public or Government funded schools are found throughout Bangladesh. These schools mostly teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, and 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children, especially girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as Dhaka, however, this is fairly uncommon. Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns usually do not. Public schools are often the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and Chittagong. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in Bengali.

    Per the Canadian constitution, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten (or equivalent) exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten (or equivalent) is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of hours provided varies widely. Starting at grade one, at about age six, there is universal Crown-funded access up to grade twelve (or equivalent). Schools are generally divided into elementary schools (kindergarten to Grade 6), junior high schools (Grades 7 to 9), and high schools (Grades 10 to 12). However, in many areas middle schoolsare also provided and in some schools, particularly in rural areas, the elementary and middle levels can be combined into one school. In 2003, Grade 13 (also known as the Ontario Academic Credit or "OAC" year) was eliminated in Ontario; it had previously been required only for students who intended to...

    In China, state schools are funded and administered by the education sector within the government. Although some, especially high schools, have started to charge a fair portion of parents of students an additional tuition fee, due to the increased places offered by the schools in recent years. Top state schools are often very selective, however. Students who miss their entrance requirement may still gain places if they meet a relatively lower requirement and their parents are willing to pay for the additional fees. Some parents appreciate the idea as they may send their children to good schools even though they may not be academically qualified, while others believe that it is not fair for someone who has a background of poverty. The public spending on schools in China has been uneven due to insufficient investment in education. This condition is in favor of urban schools and it is promoted by past policies such as the mandate for rural public schools to have a higher student-to-tea...

    The Danish School system is supported today by tax-based governmental and municipal funding from day care through primary and secondary education to higher education and there are no tuition fees for regular students in public schools and universities. The Danish public primary schools, covering the entire period of compulsory education, are called folkeskoler (literally 'people's schools' or 'public schools'). The Folkeskoleconsists of a pre-school class (mandatory since 2009), the 9-year obligatory course and a voluntary 11th year. It thus caters for pupils aged 6 to 17. It is also possible for parents to send their children to various kinds of private schools. These schools also receive government funding, although they are not public. In addition to this funding, these schools may charge a fee from the parents.

    The French educational system is highly centralised, organised, and ramified. It is divided into three stages: 1. primary education (enseignement primaire); 2. secondary education (enseignement secondaire); 3. tertiary or college education (enseignement supérieur) Schooling in France is mandatory as of age 6, the first year of primary school. Many parents start sending their children earlier though, around age 3 as kindergarten classes (maternelle) are usually affiliated to a borough's (commune) primary school. Some even start earlier at age 2 in pré-maternelle or garderie class, which is essentially a daycarefacility. French secondary education is divided into two schools: 1. the collège for the first four years directly following primary school; 2. the lycéefor the next three years. The completion of secondary studies leads to the baccalauréat. The baccalauréat (also known as bac) is the end-of-lycée diploma students sit for in order to enter university, a Classe préparatoire aux...

    Education in Germany is provided to a large extent by the government, with control coming from state level, (Länder) and funding coming from two levels: federal and state. Curricula, funding, teaching, and other policies are set through the respective state's ministryof education. Decisions about the acknowledgment of private schools (the German equivalent to accreditation in the US) are also made by these ministries. However, public schools are automatically recognised, since these schools are supervised directly by the ministry of education bureaucracy. Although the first kindergarten in the world was opened in 1840 by Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel in the German town of Bad Blankenburg, and the term kindergarten is even a loanword from the German language, they are not part of the German school system. Article 7 Paragraph 6 of the German constitution (the Grundgesetz) abolished pre-school as part of the German school system. However, virtually all German kindergartens are public...

    In Hong Kong the term government schoolsis used for free schools funded by the government. There are also subsidised schools (which are the majority in Hong Kong and many of which are run by religious organisations), "Direct Subsidy Scheme" schools, private schools and international schools in Hong Kong. Some schools are international schools, which are not subsidised by the government.

    During British rule, a number of state higher education establishments were set up (such as Universities in Chennai, Kolkata, and Mumbai), but little was done by the British in terms of primary and secondary schooling. Other indigenous forms of education are being revived in various ways across India. According to current estimates, 80% of all Indian schools are government schools making the government the major provider of education. However, because of the poor quality of public education, 27% of Indian children are privately educated.According to some research, private schools often provide superior educational results at a fraction of the unit cost of government schools.The teacher to student ratio is usually much lower in private schools than in the government ones, creating more competitive students.Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. The Nalanda Univers...

    Education in Indonesia is overseen by two government ministries: the Ministry of Education and Culture for all education matters up to the tertiary education, and the Ministry of Religious Affairsfor Islamic schools matters up to the tertiary education. Education may be obtained from state schools, private schools, or through homeschooling. There is a 12 years compulsory educationprogram from government. The Indonesian educational system is divided into three stages: 1. primary education (pendidikan dasar); 2. secondary education (pendidikan menengah); 3. tertiary education (perguruan tinggi)

    • Definition
    • Early History
    • Victorian Period
    • 20th Century
    • 21st Century
    • Associations with The Ruling Class
    • Major and Minor Public Schools
    • Comparison to Prisons
    • Literature and Media
    • Television Documentaries

    There is no single or absolute definition of a public school, and the use of the term has varied over time and according to context. The starting point was the contrast between a public school and private teaching.Public schools are not funded from public taxes. The independent schools' representative body, the Independent Schools Information Service (ISIS) defined public schools as long-established, student-selective, fee-charging independent secondary schools that cater primarily for children aged between 11 or 13 and 18, and whose head teacher is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference(HMC). The above definition of 1981 has resonance with that of Sydney Smith written in 1810 in The Edinburgh Review. "By a public school, we mean an endowed place of education of old standing, to which the sons of gentlemen resort in considerable numbers, and where they continue to reside, from eight or nine, to eighteen years of age. We do not give this as a definition which wou...

    Public schools emerged from grammar schools established to educate pupils, usually destined for clerical orders, in Latin grammar. The term "public" came into use because over time access to such schools was not restricted on the basis of home location, paternal occupation or status, and that they were subject to an element of public management or control, in contrast to private schools which were run for the personal profit of the proprietors. The origins of schools in the UK were primarily religious, although in 1640 the House of Commons did invite the reformer and promoter of universal education, Comenius to England to establish and participate in an agency for the promotion of learning. It was intended that by-products of this would be the publication of 'universal' books and the setting up of schools for boys and girls. The English Civil Warprevented any such reform. Until the late medieval period most schools were controlled by the church; and had specific entrance criteria; o...

    A Royal Commission, the Clarendon Commission (1861–1864), investigated nine of the more established schools, including seven boarding schools (Charterhouse, Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Shrewsbury, Westminster and Winchester) and two day schools (St Paul's and Merchant Taylors'). Howard Staunton's book of 1865 entitled The Great Schools of England considered those nine schools plus Cheltenham College, Christ's Hospital, and Dulwich College. The Public Schools Act 1868 subsequently regulated and reformed the seven boarding schools investigated by Clarendon, and in summary established and granted autonomy to new governing bodies for the seven schools and as part of that, released them from previous obligations under their founding charters to educate "boys on the Foundation" ie scholarship boys who paid nominal or no fees. The Act gave the seven schools independence from direct jurisdiction or responsibility of the Crown, the established church, or the government. Henceforth each of these sch...

    There was a further expansion in public school education in the interwar years. New schools such as Rendcomb (1920), Stowe (1923), Canford (1923), Bryanston (1928) and Millfield(1935) were established. In 1942 the then President of the Board of Education Rab Butler appointed a Committee on Public Schools under the leadership of Lord Fleming. The committee was tasked to 'consider means whereby the association between the Public Schools and the general educational system of the country could be developed and extended'. The Fleming Report (1944) entitled The Public Schools and the General Education System defined a public school as a member of the Governing Bodies Association or the Headmasters' Conference. The Fleming Committee recommended that one-quarter of the places at the public schools should be assigned to a national bursary scheme for children who would benefit from boarding. A key advocate was the post-war Minister of Education Ellen Wilkinson, but the proposed national bursa...

    In September 2005 the UK Office of Fair Trading (OFT) found that 50 prominent public schools were in breach of the Competition Act 1998 through their exchange of details of planned fee increases over three academic years 2001–02, 2002–03 and 2003–04.The Independent Schools Council claimed that the investigation had been "a scandalous waste of public money".

    Former Harrow pupil Stanley Baldwin wrote that when he first became Prime Minister in 1923, he wanted to have six Harrovians in his government. "To make a cabinet is like making a jig-saw puzzle fit, and I managed to make my six fit by keeping the post of Chancellor of the Exchequer for myself". Until the war, the role of public schools in preparing pupils for the gentlemanly elite meant that such education, particularly in its classical focus and social mannerism,[clarification needed] became a mark of the ruling class. For three hundred years, the officers and senior administrators of the British Empire sent their sons back home to boarding schools for education as gentlemen. This was often for uninterrupted periods of a year or more. The 19th-century public school ethos promoted ideas of service to Crown and Empire, exemplified in familiar tropes such as "Play up! Play up! And play the game!" from Henry Newbolt's poem Vitaï Lampada and "the Battle of Waterloo was won on the playi...

    Dorothy L. Sayers in her 1933 novel Murder Must Advertise had her protagonist, the aristocrat Lord Peter Wimseypostulate that there are but three 'great' public schools (with the incipient corollary that all others are 'minor'), as follows:- "Well, you and Mr. Bredon have had college educations, so you know all about it. What schools do you call public schools?""Eton," said Mr. Bredon, promptly, "--and Harrow," he added, magnanimously, for he was an Eton man… "And I've heard," Bredon went on, "that there's a decentish sort of place at Winchester, if you're not too particular." While the definition is often disputed, historical precedents dictate that only the nine Clarendon schools are able to be defined as "major"[citation needed] on account of their historic status within British society, despite the term being rarely used in modern times. During the 19th century, a substantial increase in demand for high quality education created many new boarding schools, which on account of the...

    Public schools have been light-heartedly compared by their pupils or ex-pupils to prisons. O. G. S. Crawford stated that he had been "far less unhappy" when incarcerated in Holzminden prisoner-of-war camp during the First World War than he had previously been at his public school, Marlborough College. Evelyn Waugh observed in his satirical novel Decline and Fall (1928) that "anyone who has been to an English public school will always feel comparatively at home in prison". Former Cabinet Minister Jonathan Aitken, sentenced to 18 months' imprisonment for perjury in 1999, commented in an interview: "As far as the physical miseries go, I am sure I will cope. I lived at Etonin the 1950s and I know all about life in uncomfortable quarters."

    Rugby School inspired a whole new genre of literature, i.e. the school story. Thomas Hughes's Tom Brown's School Days, published in 1857 was set there. There were however as many as 90 earlier novels set in British boarding schools, taking as an example just girls' school stories, published between Sarah Fielding's 1749 The Governess, or The Little Female Academy and the seminal 1857 Tom Brown's School Days. Such stories were set in a variety of institutions including private boarding and prep schools as well as public schools. Tom Brown's School Days' influence on the genre of British school novels includes the fictional boarding schools of Talbot Baines Reed's St Dominic's, Rudyard Kipling's Stalky & Co. at "the College",[d] Frank Richards' Billy Bunter at Greyfriars School, James Hilton's Mr Chips at Brookfield,[e] Anthony Buckeridge's Jennings at Linbury Court,[f] P. G. Wodehouse's St. Austin's and girls' schools Malory Towers and St. Trinian's. It also influenced J. K. Rowling'...

    1967: "Eton"is a documentary produced by Anthony de Lotbiniere, narrated by René Cutforth, shown on BBC TV 1979: Edward Mirzoeff produced the BBC documentary entitled "Public School" about Westminster School, including footage of John Rae 1980: Richard Denton produced a ten part documentary about Radley College also entitled "Public School"which ran on BBC2 1981: "The Gentleman Factory" about Eton Collge, directed by Simon Dewhurst was shown on BBC1 1991: "Eton - Class of '91"was a Channel 4 documentary about Eton College, directed by Simon Shore 1995: "Inside Eton" by Howard Guard, narrated by Charles Dance 2001: "Harrow:The School on the Hill" was broadcast by ITV(Carlton), featuring Barnaby Lenon, narrated by Aden Gillett 2011: "Posh and Posher: Why Public School Boys Run Britain" shown on BBC2 was produced by Matthew Laza and presented by Andrew Neil 2008: "My New Best Friend" shown on BBC4, directed by Jo Abel is about Cheltenham Ladies College 2013: Hannah Berryman's BBC docum...

  4. In contrast, public schools are funded and governed by local and state governments, and most parochial schools are owned, governed, and financed by religious institutions such as a diocese or parish.

  5. School district. Hisar district. Gender. Co-educational. Age. 3 to 18. Website. www .schooleducationharyana .gov .in. Government School, Kanwari is a government funded school located in Kanwari village of Hisar district in the Indian state of Haryana.

    • History
    • General Structure and Characteristics
    • State-Specific Structure and Regulations
    • National Evaluations
    • Local Evaluations of Charter Schools
    • Policy and Practice
    • Criticism
    • See Also
    • Bibliography
    • Further Reading

    The charter school idea in the United States was originated in 1974 by Ray Budde, a professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Albert Shanker, president of the American Federation of Teachers, embraced the concept in 1988, when he called for the reform of the public schools by establishing "charter schools" or "schools of choice." Gloria Ladson-Billings called him "the first person to publicly propose charter schools." At the time, a few schools already existed that were not called charter schools but embodied some of their principles, such as H-B Woodlawn. As originally conceived, the ideal model of a charter school was as a legally and financially autonomous public school (without tuition, religious affiliation, or selective student admissions) that would operate much like a private business—free from many state laws and district regulations, and accountable more for student outcomes rather than for processes or inputs (such as Carnegie Unitsand teacher certification re...

    The rules and structure of charter schools depend on state authorizing legislation and differ from state to state. A charter school is authorized to function once it has received a charter, a statutorily defined performance contractdetailing the school's mission, program, goals, students served, methods of assessment, and ways to measure success. The length of time for which charters are granted varies, but most are granted for 3–5 years.

    State laws follow varied sets of key organizing principles based on the Citizens League's recommendations for Minnesota, American Federation of Teachersguidelines, or federal charter-school legislation (U.S. Department of Education). Principles govern sponsorship, number of schools, regulatory waivers, degree of fiscal/legal autonomy, and performance expectations.

    Multiple researchers and organizations have examined educational outcomes for students who attend charter schools. In general, urban charter schools may appear to be a good alternative to traditional urban schools for urban minority students in poor neighborhoods, if one looks strictly at test scores, but students in suburban charter schools do no better than those in traditional suburban schools serving a mostly middle-class white population.


    A study in the Boston Public Schools (BPS) Districtcompared Boston's charter schools to their district school peers as well as Boston's pilot schools, which are public schools that have been granted the flexibility to determine their own budgets, staffing, curricula, and scheduling but remain part of the local school district and subject to collectively bargained pay scales and seniority protections. The report performed analyses using both statistical controls and using pilot and charter app...

    Los Angeles

    CREDO evaluated the impact of charter schools in Los Angeles from 2008 to 2012.The study found that over 48% of Los Angeles charters outperform local public schools in reading and 44% percent of Los Angeles charters outperform local public schools in math. The study concludes they believe not every charter will outperform traditional public schools, but that conditions are well suited for growth. An evaluation of Los Angeles charter schools from 2002 to 2008, published in the American Journal...

    New Orleans

    A 2010 case study by the Harvard Business School examined the charter school reform efforts in New Orleans. Following Hurricane Katrina, the district became composed of 70 Recovery School District(RSD) schools managed by the state (including 37 RSD charter schools) and 16 schools managed by the local Orleans Parish School Board (OPSB) (including 12 OPSB charter schools). Charter schools now account for more than 60% of the public schools in New Orleans. RSD Schools were a result of Act 9 of t...

    As more states start charter schools, there is increasing speculation about upcoming legislation. In an innovation-diffusion study surveying education policy experts in fifty states, Michael Mintrom and Sandra Vergari (1997) found that charter legislation is more likely to be considered in states with poor test scores, Republican legislative control, and proximity to other states with high quality charter schools. Legislative enthusiasm, gubernatorial support, interactions with national authorities, and use of permissive charter-law models increase the chances for adopting what they consider stronger laws. He feels union support and restrictive models lead to adoption of what he considers weaker laws. Other barriers to charter expansion include restrictions on the number of charters permissible in a state, lack of state and local funding for facilities and transportation, and a political and philanthropic focus on expanding charters in urban areas rather than in suburban or rural ar...

    Difficulties with accountability

    The basic concept of charter schools is that they exercise increased autonomy in return for greater accountability. They are meant to be held accountable for both academic results and fiscal practices to several groups, including the sponsor that grants them, the parents who choose them, and the public that funds them. Charter schools can theoretically be closed for failing to meet the terms set forth in their charter, but in practice, this can be difficult, divisive, and controversial. One e...


    Whether the charter school model can be scaled up to the size of a public noncharter school system has been questioned, when teaching demands more from teachers and many noncharter teachers are apparently unable to teach in the way charters seek, as has been suggested by Arne Duncan, U.S. Secretary of Education, Diane Ravitch, education historian and former assistant U.S. education secretary, Mark Roosevelt, former schools chief for Pittsburgh, Penn., U.S., and Dave Levin, of the KIPP charter...

    Exploitation by for-profit entities

    Critics have accused for-profit entities, (education management organizations, EMOs) and private foundations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, and the Walton Family Foundation of funding Charter school initiatives to undermine public education and turn education into a "Business Model" which can make a profit. According to activist Jonathan Kozol, education is seen as one of the biggest market opportunities in America or "the big enchilada".

    Brill, Steven (2012). Class Warfare: Inside the Fight to Fix America's Schools. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-1201-1.
    Ladson-Billings, Gloria (2013). "Lack of Achievement or Loss of Opportunity?". In Carter, Prudence L.; Welner, Kevin G. (eds.). Closing the Opportunity Gap: What America Must Do to Give Every Child...
    Rebarber, Ted; Zgainer, Alison Consoletti (February 2014). "Annual Survey of America's Charter Schools 2014" (PDF). Center for Education Reform.
    9 Billionaires Are About to Remake New York’s Public Schools – Here’s Their Story (March 2015). "A Nationinvestigation reveals how a group of hedge funders are about to get exactly what they paid f...
    Charter schools making big profits for private companies (Aug. 2014), WTSP Television
    Study of charter school effectiveness (Oct. 2013), The Boston Foundation
    Buckley, Jack and Schneider, Mark. Charter Schools: Hope or Hype?(Princeton, PUP, 2007).
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