Speakers of the Romani language usually refer to the language as rromani ćhib "the Romani language" or rromanes "in a Rom way". This derives from the Romani word rrom, meaning either "a member of the (Romani) group" or "husband".
Romanian is a part of the Eastern Romance sub-branch of Romance languages, a linguistic group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin which separated from the Western Romance languages in the course of the period from the 5th to the 8th centuries.
Romani or Romany (native name: romani ćhib) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, once spoken in the Indo-Greek Kingdom. The Indo-Aryan Romani language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages.
- Official language
- Minority languages
In Romania there are several spoken languages. Beside Romanian, the countrywide official language, other spoken languages are spoken and sometimes co-official at a local level. These languages include Hungarian, Romani, Ukrainian, German, Russian, Turkish, Tatar, Serbian, Slovak, Bulgarian, and Croatian.
According to the 2002 Romanian Census, Romanian is spoken by 91% of the population as a primary language. According to the Romanian Constitution and the law 1206 of 2006 the official language in Romania is Romanian both at the national and local level. Officially and since 2013, the Romanian language has its own holiday, the Romanian Language Day, celebrated on every 31 August. A similar holiday, "Limba noastră", exists in Moldova.
After the fall of Romania's communist government in 1989, the various minority languages have received more rights, and Romania currently has extensive laws relating to the rights of minorities to use their own language in local administration and the judicial system. While Romanian is the only official language at the national and local level, there are 14 other living languages in Romania. The Romanian laws include linguistic rights for all minority groups that form over 20% of a locality's po
- Writing systems
Vlax Romani is a dialect group of the Romani language. Vlax Romani varieties are spoken mainly in Southeastern Europe by the Romani people. Vlax Romani can also be referred to as an independent language or as one dialect of the Romani language. Vlax Romani is the second most widely spoken dialect subgroup of the Romani language worldwide, after Balkan Romani.
The language's name Vlax Romani was coined by British scholar Bernard Gilliat-Smith in his 1915 study on Bulgarian Romani, in which he first divided Romani dialects into Vlax and non-Vlax. The name derives from the ethnologically unrelated "Vlachs", as all the Vlax dialects have had an extensive, lexical, phonological and morphological influence from the Romanian language. There have been multiple waves of migration of Romani out of Romania, some of them being connected to the 19th century aboli
Vlax Romani is written using the Romani orthography, predominantly using the Latin alphabet with several additional characters. In the area of the former Soviet Union, however, it can also be written in the Cyrillic script.
- Historical documentation of English Romani
- Dialectal variation
- Phonology and syntax
Angloromani or Anglo-Romani is a mixed language involving the presence of Romani vocabulary and syntax in the English used by descendants of Romanichal Travellers in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United States, and South Africa. After their arrival to Great Britain in the sixteenth century, Romani used the Romani language until the late nineteenth century. It was replaced by English as the everyday and family language of British Romani, leading to what is known as "Para-Rom
A document from about the seventeenth century titled the Winchester Confessions indicates that British Romani was itself a dialect of the northern branch of Romani sharing a close similarity to Welsh Romani. However, the language in a modern context has changed from the Indic-based vocabulary, morphology, and influences from Greek and other Balkan languages of the seventeenth century to a Para-Romani dialect typical of modern Anglo-Romani with sentence endings influenced by English, while Welsh
Anglo-Romani is a mixed language, with the base languages being Romani and English. Some English lexical items that are archaic or only used in idiomatic expressions in Standard English survive in Anglo-Romani, for example moniker and swaddling. Every region where Angloromani is spoken is characterised by a distinct colloquial English style; this often leads outsiders to believe that the speech of Romanichals is regional English. The distinct rhotic pronunciation of the Southern Angloromani vari
Among Anglo-Romani speakers, there is variation depending on where groups originally settled before learning English: 1. Southern Angloromani. 2. Northern Angloramani. The members of these groups consider that not only do their dialects/accents differ, but also that they are of different regional groups. The speakers of Southern Angloromani took the regional identity of Southern Romanichal Travellers and the speakers of Northern Angloromani took the regional identity of Northern Romanichal Trave
Overall, Anglo-Romani consonants reflect the standard British English consonantal system with the exception that the rhotic is trilled and /x/ appears in certain dialects. Anglo-Romani may sometimes be rhotic and in other cases is non-rhotic like English non-rhotic dialects; for example, in Romani terno "young" can be rendered as tawno.
In the sixteenth century, the Romani language was an inflected language, employing two genders, plurality and case marking. Anglo-Romani is first referenced in 1566–1567. In the late nineteenth century, Romani personal pronouns became inconsistently marked, according to Leland, who also notes that case distinction began fading overall, and gender marking also disappeared. George Borrow notes that in 1874, some Romani speakers were still employing complete inflection, while some were ...
Welsh Romani (or Welsh Kalá) is a variety of the Romani language which was spoken fluently in Wales until at least 1950. It was spoken by the Kale group of the Romani people who arrived in Britain during the 16th century.
Laiuse Romani was a Romani variety spoken in Estonia.It was a mixed language based on Romani and Estonian.. The Romani people first appeared in Estonia in the 17th century. . According to rumors, they were first part of Swedish King Charles XII's Romani orchestra which he, after spending a winter in Laiuse, left b
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The Indo-Aryan family as a whole is thought to represent a dialect continuum, where languages are often transitional towards neighboring varieties. Because of this, the division into languages vs. dialects is in many cases somewhat arbitrary. The classification of the Indo-Aryan languages is controversial, with many transitional areas that are assigned to different branches depending on classification. There are concerns that a tree model is insufficient for explaining the development of New...
The below classification follows Masica (1991), and Kausen (2006)harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFKausen2006 (help).
Proto-Indo-Aryan, or sometimes Proto-Indic, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages. It is intended to reconstruct the language of the pre-Vedic Indo-Aryans. Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan (1500–300 BCE) which is directly attested as Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan. Despite the great archaicity of Vedic, however, the other Indo-Aryan languages preserve a small number of archaic features lost in Vedic.
Dates indicate only a rough time frame. 1. Proto-Indo-Aryan(before 1500 BCE, reconstructed) 2. Old Indo-Aryan (ca. 1500–300 BCE) 2.1. early Old Indo-Aryan: includes Vedic Sanskrit(ca. 1500 to 500 BCE) 2.2. late Old Indo-Aryan: Epic Sanskrit, Classical Sanskrit(ca. 200 CE to 1300 CE) 2.3. Mitanni Indo-Aryan(ca. 1400 BCE) (middle Indo-Aryan features) 3. Middle Indo-Aryan or Prakrits, (ca. 300 BCE to 1500 CE) 3.1. early Buddhist texts (ca. 6th or 5th century BCE) 3.2. early Middle Indo-Aryan: e....
The following are consonant systems of major and representative New Indo-Aryan languages, mostly following Masica (1991:106–107), though here they are in IPA. Parentheses indicate those consonants found only in loanwords: square brackets indicate those with "very low functional load". The arrangement is roughly geographical.
In many Indo-Aryan languages, the literary register is often more archaic and utilises a different lexicon (Sanskrit or Perso-Arabic) than spoken vernacular. One example is Bengali's high literary form, Sādhū bhāśā as opposed to the more modern Calita bhāśā (Cholito-bhasha). This distinction approaches diglossia.
Language and dialect
In the context of South Asia, the choice between the appellations "language" and "dialect" is a difficult one, and any distinction made using these terms is obscured by their ambiguity. In one general colloquial sense, a language is a "developed" dialect: one that is standardised, has a written tradition and enjoys social prestige. As there are degrees of development, the boundary between a language and a dialect thus defined is not clear-cut, and there is a large middle ground where assignme...
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