Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербург, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] ()), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), is the second-largest city in Russia.
- 1,439 km² (556 sq mi)
- 27 May 1703
Saint Petersburg ( Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, romanized: Sankt-Peterburg) is a Russian city in northwestern Russia, near the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea. Over five million people live in St. Petersburg as of 2015, and it is the second biggest city in Russia. It is a major port, connecting with the world's shipping paths ...
Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, nine years before the Treaty of Nystad. Called the "window to Europe", it was a seaport and also a base for Peter's navy, protected by the fortress of Kronstadt. The first person to build a home in Saint Petersburg was Cornelis Cruys, commander of the Baltic Fleet.
St. Petersburg is a city in Pinellas County, Florida, United States.As of the 2020 census estimate, the population was 271,842, making it the fifth-most populous city in Florida and the largest in the state that is not a county seat (the city of Clearwater is the seat of Pinellas County).
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Saint Petersburg Governorate ( Russian: Санкт-Петербу́ргская губе́рния, Sankt-Peterburgskaya guberniya ), or Government of Saint Petersburg, was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR, which existed during 1708 ...
- Shlisselburg (until 1712), Saint Petersburg
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Repino is an area of Saint Petersburg, Russia, and a station of the Saint Petersburg-Vyborg railroad. It was known by its Finnish name Kuokkala until 1948, when it was renamed after its most famous inhabitant, the painter Ilya Repin. It is 30 kilometers northwest of St. Petersburg on the Karelian Isthmus and Gulf of Finland. The population was 2,478 at the 2010 Census.
The first mention of Kuokkala is in a peace treaty between the Republic of Novgorod and Sweden in 1323. The territory where the village is located was fought over between the Muscovites and Swedes in the 16th and 17th centuries and came under Russian control after the Great Northern War in the early 18th century. The village was inhabited by fishermen of Finnish and Russian ethnicities. The area developed further after 1870 when the railway linking St Petersburg and Helsinki passed through the t
In 1899, Repin bought an estate here and called it Penaty. He designed his own house, and after it had been built several years later, Repin moved to Kuokkala. He would live there until his death in 1930. The house is surrounded by a large park. The estate is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments". The estate has been a museum since 1940.
The Saint Petersburg Metro is a rapid transit system in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Construction began in early 1941, but was put on hold due to World War II and the subsequent Siege of Leningrad, during which the constructed stations were used as bomb shelters. It was finally opened on 15 November 1955. Formerly known as the Order of Lenin Leningrad Metro named after V. I. Lenin, the system exhibits many typical Soviet designs and features exquisite decorations and artwork making it one of the mo
The question of building an underground road in Saint Petersburg arose in 1820. A resident of the city, a self-taught man by the name of Torgovanov, submitted a bold project to Tsar Alexander I — involving the digging of a tunnel from the center of the city to Vasilyevsky ...
In 1938 the question of building a metro for St Petersburg, resurfaced at the initiative of Alexei Kosygin, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Leningrad City Soviets of Working People's Deputies. Ivan Zubkov, an engineer who for his work was later to become a Hero of Soci
In 1946 Lenmetroproyekt was created, under the leadership of M A Samodurov, to finish the construction of the metro first phase. A new version of the metro project, devised by specialists, identified two new solutions to the problems to be encountered during the metro constructio
Line 1 is the oldest line of the metro, opened in 1955. The original stations are very beautiful and elaborately decorated, especially Avtovo and Narvskaya. The line connects four out of five Saint Petersburg's main railway stations. In 1995, a flooding occurred in a tunnel betwe
The Moskovsko-Petrogradskaya Line is the second oldest line of the metro, opened in 1961. It featured the first cross-platform transfer in the USSR. It was also the first metro line in Saint Petersburg to feature a unique platform type that soon became dubbed as "Horizontal Lift"
The Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya Line is a line of the metro, opened in 1967. Since 1994, it has been officially designated as Line 3. It stands out among St. Petersburg metro lines for two reasons — its stations are almost exclusively of "Horizontal Lift" type and it has the ...
Some of the features of the Saint Petersburg Metro make it stand out amongst others, even those in the former USSR. It is customary to have stations in the centre of a city built very deep, not only to minimise disruption, but also, because of the Cold War threat, they were built to double as bomb shelters, and many old stations do feature provisions such as blast doors and air filters. In most cities, the lines become shallow or even begin to run above ground as they reach the city's outer resi
The Metro has a very large expansion plan for the next half century. The Pravoberezhnaya Line was split in early 2009, and the new fifth line took the northern radius away from Pravoberezhnaya and opened with a new section to the south. The Pravoberezhnaya line will extend to the west, and then north to Lakhta, and then to Yuntolovo. The two stations, Bukharestskaya and Mezhdunarodnaya of the Frunzensko-Primorskaya line, opened in December 2012, will be followed by another three heading southwar
- 2.09 million
- 72 (126 planned)
- 5 (9 planned)
- 124.8 km (77.5 mi)
- Puncte de Reper și Atracții Turistice
- Vezi de asemenea
- Vezi și
- Orașe Înfrățite
- Legături Externe
Imaginea maiestuoasă a orașului este datorată detaliilor arhitecturale variate: bulevarde lungi și drepte, spații vaste, grădini și parcuri, garduri decorative din fier forjat, monumente și sculpturi decorative. Râul Neva, cu multele lui canale, poduri și cheiuri din granit, dă orașului o notă aparte, de neconfundat. Numeroasele canale au făcut ca orașului să i se dea supranumele de "VenețiaNordului". Amplasarea Sankt Petersburgului lângă Cercul Polar de Nord, la aceeași latitudine cu orașele Helsinki, Stockholm și Oslo (60° N), face ca amurgul să dureze toată noaptea în mai, iunie și iulie. Acest fenomen este cunoscut ca nopțile albe. Altă atracție o constituie cele nouă poduri basculante care se deschid deasupra Nevei. Turiștii se înghesuie ca să vadă podurile coborâte și ridicate pentru a permite navelor să traverseze orașul. Centrul istoric al Sankt Petersburgului, numit, uneori, și muzeul în aer liber al neoclasicismului,[necesită citare] a fost primul loc din patrimoniul ruses...
Țarul Petru cel Mare a fondat orașul pe 27 mai (16 mai stil vechi), 1703, după ce a recucerit Ingria de la Suedia. A botezat orașul cu numele sfântului său protector, Sfântul Petru. Inițial, orașul s-a numit Sankt Piterburh, (numele apostolului Petru în limba olandeză; viitorul țar a locuit și a studiat o vreme în Țările de Jos). În acest loc se aflau fortăreața suedeză Nyen, și mai nou Nöteborg, în zona mlăștinoasă pe care o traversa râul Neva către gurile de vărsare din Golful Finlandei. Devreme ce ridicarea orașului a început în timp de război, prima construcție a fost o fortificație. Cunoscută în zilele noastre ca Fortăreața Sfinții Petru și Pavel, a avut și ea, la început, numele de Sankt Piterburh. Fortăreața a fost ridicată pe insula Iepurelui, pe malul drept al Nevei, la aproximativ 3 km de vărsarea acestuia în mare. Mlaștinile au fost secate și orașul s-a întins în toate părțile, dezvoltarea noii localități fiind făcută sub conducerea inginerilor germani invitați de țar în...
Orașul este un important centru al industriei constructoare de mașini, echipament energetic, utilaje, al construcțiilor navale, metalurgiei feroaselor și neferoaselor, industriei chimice și tipografice. Orașul este, de asemenea, unul dintre cele mai importante porturi la Marea Baltică. Monetăria din Sankt Petersburg (Monetniy Dvor), este separată de Gosznak din Moscova, fiind singurul loc unde sunt fabricate monedele rusești, medaliile și insignele. Compania Ford Motor a început în 2002 producerea automobilului Ford Focusîn uzina din Skt. Petersburg.
Orașul este un important nod de transport. Este centrul regional al sistemului de șosele și căi ferate și are un foarte important port maritim la Golful Finlandei al Mării Baltice. Este punctul terminus al canalului navigabil Volga-Baltica, care leagă Marea Baltică de Marea Neagră. Sankt Peterburg are legături feroviare regulate către Helsinki - Finlanda via Vîborg (în partea rusă) și Kouvola și Lahti (în partea finlandeză). Trei trenuri frumoase de modă veche, renovate – Sibelius, Repin și Tolstoi– fac curse exclusiv pe această rută. Orașul este deservit de Aeroportul Pulkovo, atât pentru zborurile interne, cât și internaționale. Metroul din Sankt Petersburg a început să funcționeze din 1955și are, în acest moment, patru linii.
(Vezi de asemenea Cinematografia rusă și sovietică) Supremația culturală a orașului Sankt Petersburg s-a sfârșit odată cu proclamarea Moscovei ca noua capitală, dar a coincis cu zorile industriei cinematografice rusești. Doar puține filme au obținut însă recunoașterea internațională și casele de producție occidentale nu au putut filma aici. Studiourile Lenfilm au fost cele mai cunoscute în lume, având sediul în oraș. Cele mai cunoscute filme pe plan internațional au avut scenariul bazat pe lu...
Sankt Petersburg în literatură
S-a spus că Sankt Petersburgul a fost capul Imperiului Rus, în timp ce Moscova a fost inima lui. "Cel mai pragmatic oraș din lume", (așa cum îl descria Dostoievski), apare frecvent scriitorilor ruși ca un mecanism amenințător și inuman. Imaginea grotescă și de coșmar a orașului este descrisă în ultimele poeme ale lui Pușkin, în povestirile lui Gogol, în romanele lui Dostoievski, în poeziile lui Alexandr Blok și Osip Mandelștam și în romanul simbolist Petersburg de Andrei Belîi).
Numeroși aristocrați ruși și din întreaga lume, politicieni și oameni de cultură sau de știință s-au născut sau au trăit în Sankt Petersburg. Printre ei se află împărații și împărătesele Rusiei, romancierii Fiodor Dostoevski și Vladimir Nabokov, compozitorii Modest Mussorgski, Piotr Ilici Ceaikovski, Igor Stravinski și Dmitri Șostakovici, pictorii James McNeill Whistler și Kazimir Malevici, oamenii de știință Leonhard Euler, Mihail Lomonosov, Heinrich Schliemann și Alfred Nobel, balerinii sau...
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A hermitage is the dwelling of a hermit or recluse. The word derives from Old French hermit, ermit "hermit, recluse", from Late Latin eremita, from Greek eremites, literally "people who live alone", which is in turn derived from ἐρημός (erēmos), "desert". The building was initially given this name because of its exclusivity - in its early days, only very few people were allowed to visit.
Originally, the only building housing the collection was the "Small Hermitage". Today, the Hermitage Museum encompasses many buildings on the Palace Embankment and its neighbourhoods. Apart from the Small Hermitage, the museum now also includes the "Old Hermitage" (also called "Large Hermitage"), the "New Hermitage", the "Hermitage Theatre", and the "Winter Palace", the former main residence of the Russian tsars. In recent years, the Hermitage has expanded to the General Staff Building on the Palace Square facing the Winter Palace, and the Menshikov Palace.
The Western European Art collection includes European paintings, sculpture, and applied art from the 13th to the 20th centuries. It is displayed, in about 120 rooms, on the first and second floor of the four main buildings. Drawings and prints are displayed in temporary exhibitions.
Origins: Catherine's collection
Catherine the Great started her art collection in 1764 by purchasing paintings from Berlin merchant Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky. He assembled the collection for Frederick II of Prussia, who ultimately refused to purchase it. Thus, Gotzkowsky provided 225 or 317 paintings (conflicting accounts list both numbers), mainly Flemish and Dutch, as well as others, including 90 not precisely identified, to the Russian crown. The collection consisted of Rembrandt (13 paintings), Rubens (11 paintings), Jaco...
Expansion in the 19th century
In 1815, Alexander I of Russia purchased 38 pictures from the heirs of Joséphine de Beauharnais, most of which had been looted by the French in Kasselduring the war. The Hermitage collection of Rembrandts was then considered the largest in the world. Also among Alexander's purchases from Josephine's estate were the first four sculptures by the neoclassical Italian sculptor Antonio Canova to enter the Hermitage collection. Eventually the imperial collections were enriched by Greek and Scythian...
After the October Revolution
Immediately after the Revolutionof 1917 the Imperial Hermitage and the Winter Palace, the former Imperial residence, were proclaimed state museums and eventually merged. The range of the Hermitage's exhibits was further expanded when private art collections from several palaces of the Russian Tsars and numerous private mansions were nationalized and redistributed among major Soviet state museums. Particularly notable was the influx of old masters from the Catherine Palace, the Alexander Palac...
The Hermitage Volunteer Service offers all those interested a unique opportunity to involve themselves in running this world-renowned museum. The program not only aids the Hermitage with its external and internal activities but also serves as an informal link between the museum staff and the public, bringing the specific knowledge of the museum's experts to the community. Volunteers may also develop projects reflecting their own personal goals and interests: communicate a feeling of responsib...
A population of cats lives on the museum grounds and serves as an attraction.
1. Russian Ark (2002), the Russian film by Alexander Sokurov, was filmed entirely in the Hermitage Museum, showing the Winter Palaceat various stages of its history. 2. War and Peace (1966–67), an Oscar-winning Soviet adaptation of the 1869 novel by Leo Tolstoy, was partially filmed in the Winter Palace.
Russia-K, a Russian national television channel, has been presenting the various art collections of the Hermitage to the general public for years. There are a series of programs that have aired entitled ‘My Hermitage’ that have been particularly successful. All of these programs are organized by the Director of the Hermitage, Professor Mikhail Piotrovsky, and are quite similar to the broadcasts created by Academician Boris Piotrovsky, who is Mikhail's father. These programs were first broadca...
1. To the Hermitage, a 2000 novel by Malcolm Bradbury, retells the story of Diderot's journey to Russia to meet Catherine the Greatin her Hermitage. 2. Petersburg, a 1913 novel by Andrey Bely, features the Winter Canalnear the palace as one of its central locations, but never names the Winter Palace directly. 3. Ghostwritten, by David Mitchell, features as one of its protagonists a woman who works for an art counterfeiting ring whilst masquerading a docent in a gallery room on the upper floor...Ancient Near East: Urartudeity (7th–5th century BC)Ancient Greek: Red-figure vase(5th century BC)Ancient Steppes: Pazyryk horseman(3rd century BC)Frank, Christoph (2002), "Die Gemäldesammlungen Gotzkowsky, Eimbke und Stein: Zur Berliner Sammlungsgeschichte während des Siebenjährigen Krieges.", in Michael North (ed.), Kunstsammeln und Geschma...Norman, Geraldine (1997), The Hermitage; The Biography of a Great Museum, New York: Fromm International, ISBN 0-88064-190-8