- From 1815 to 1882 the official name for Serbia was the Principality of Serbia, from 1882 to 1918 it was renamed to the Kingdom of Serbia , later from 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, later renamed the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990.
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The Kingdom of Serbia (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљевина Србија, romanized: Kraljevina Srbija) was a country located in the Balkans which was created when the ruler of the Principality of Serbia, Milan I, was proclaimed king in 1882.
In 1929 the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes adopted the name Yugoslavia. In 1946, Yugoslavia became a socialist federation of six republics: Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia. At this time, it adopted the name Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY).
From 1815 to 1882 the official name for Serbia was the Principality of Serbia, from 1882 to 1918 it was renamed to the Kingdom of Serbia, later from 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, later renamed the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country has ...
- Principality of Serbia
- Serbo-Bulgarian War
- Bosnian Crisis
- Balkan Wars and Ensuing Changes
- Assassination in Sarajevo
- King Alexander II
- Invasion of Serbia
The Principality of Serbia was a state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian revolution which lasted between 1804 and 1817. Despite serious and extremely brutal oppression and revenge by the Ottoman authorities, the revolutionary leaders, first Karađorđe and then Miloš Obrenović, succeeded in their goal to liberate Serbia after centuries of Turkish rule. At first, the principality included only the territory of the former Pashaluk of Belgrade, but in 1831–1833 it expanded to the east, south, and west. In 1867 the Ottoman army was expelled from the Principality, securing its de facto independence. Serbia was further expanded to the south-east in 1878, when it won full international recognition at the Treaty of Berlin. The Principality would last until 1882 when it was raised to the level of the Kingdom of Serbia.
The Serbo-Bulgarian War was a war between Serbia and Bulgaria that erupted on November 14, 1885 and lasted until November 28 the same year. The war ended in defeat for Serbia as it had failed outright to capture the Slivnitsa region which it had set out to achieve: the Bulgarians successfully repelled the Serbs after the decisive victory at the Battle of Slivnitsa and advanced into Serbian territory taking Pirot and clearing the way to Niš. When Austria-Hungary then declared that it would join the war on the side of Serbia, Bulgaria withdrew from Serbia leaving the Serbo-Bulgarian frontier precisely as it had been prior to the war. Final peace was signed on February 19, 1886 in Bucharest. As a result of the war, European powers acknowledged the act of Unification of Bulgariawhich happened on September 6, 1885.
The Bosnian Crisis of 1908–1909 (also referred to as the Annexation crisis) erupted into public view when on October 5, 1908, Bulgaria declared its independence and on October 6, 1908, Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was populated mainly by south Slavic nations (Serbs, Croats and Muslim Slavs). Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Britain, Italy, Serbia, Montenegro, Germany and France took an interest in these events. In April 1909, the Treaty of Berlinwas amended to accept the new status quo bringing the crisis to an end. The crisis permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary on the one hand and Russia and Serbia on the other. The annexation and reactions to the annexation were contributing causes of World War I.
Serbia, victorious in two Balkan Wars, gained significant territorial areas of the Central Balkans and almost doubled its territory. During the Balkan Wars of 1912, most of Kosovo was taken from the Ottoman Empire by Serbia while the region of Metohija (known as the Dukagjini Valley to ethnic-Albanians) was taken by Montenegro. Populations of ethnic Serbs and Albanians tended to shift following territorial conquests. As a result of the multi-ethnic composition of Kosovo, the new administrations provoked a mixed response from the local population. Whilst Albanians did not welcome Serbian rule, the non-Albanian population (laregly Serb but other Slavic nations too) considered this a liberation. On November 29, 1913 Drač County of the Kingdom of Serbia was established on the part of the territory of Albania captured from the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War. Serbian Drač County had four districts (Serbian: срез): Drač (Durrës), Lješ (Lezhë), Elbasan and Tirana. After the Firs...
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria on June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo (then part of the Austria-Hungary) brought the tensions between Austria-Hungary and Serbia to a head. Behind the Assassination in Sarajevo was a secret radical organization, Black Hand, from Serbia. The assassins were supported by an "underground railroad" of Serbian civilians and military officers that provided transportation and hid them; and members of the Serbian military that trained them, encouraged them, and provided weapons, maps, and other information. After the assassination, the conspirators were arrested in Bosnia-Herzegovina were tried in Sarajevoin October 1914. The political objective of the assassination was to break the Austro-Hungarian south-Slavprovinces off from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand triggered a chain of international events that embroiled Russia and the major European powers. War broke out in Europe over the next thirty-seven days.
King Alexander II banned national political parties in 1929, assuming executive power. He hoped to encourage nationalist passions in order to rebuild Serbia. However, Alexander's policies later encountered opposition from other European powers stemming from developments in Italy and Germany, where Fascists and Nationalists rose to power, and the Soviet Union, where Joseph Stalinbecame absolute ruler. None of these three regimes favored the policy pursued by Alexander II. In fact, Italy and Germany wanted to revise the international treaties signed after World War I, and the Soviets were determined to regain their positions in Europe and pursue a more active international policy. Alexander attempted to increase centralization in Serbia. He decided to abolish Yugoslavia's historic regions, and new internal boundaries were drawn for provinces or banovinas. The banovinas were named after rivers. Many politicians were jailed or kept under police surveillance. The effect of Alexander's di...
The international political scene in the late 1930s was marked by growing intolerance between the principal figures, by the aggressive attitude of the totalitarianregimes and by the certainty that the order set up after World War I was losing its strongholds and its sponsors were losing their strength. Prince Paul submitted to the Fascist pressure and signed the Tripartite Treaty in Vienna on March 25, 1941, hoping to still keep Serbia out of the war. But this was at the expense of popular support for Paul's regency. Senior military officers were also opposed to the treaty and launched a coup d'état when the king returned on March 27. Army General Dušan Simović seized power, arrested the Vienna delegation, exiled Paul, and ended the regency, giving 17-year-old King Peter full powers. Hitler then decided to attack Serbia on April 6, 1941 followed immediately by an invasion of Greece where Mussolinihad previously been repelled.
At 5:12 am on 6 April 1941, German, Italian and Bulgarian forces attacked Serbia. The German Air Force (Luftwaffe) bombed Belgrade and other major Serbian cities. On April 17, representatives of Serbia signed an armistice with Bulgaria in Belgrade, ending 11 days of resistance against the invading Bulgarian Army. More than 150,000 Serbia officers and soldiers were taken prisoner. The Axis Powers occupied Serbia and further carved it up. The Government of National Salvation was established as a German satellite state, ruled by the Fascist militia known as the Serb National Movement that came into existence in 1935, but was relatively limited in its activities until 1948. In the aftermath of the 1989 revolutions that swept across Europe Serbia held a national referendum in 1990 which abolished the National Salvation government in favor of a provisional one. Elections in 1990 followed by a second referendum 1992 restored the Serbian monarchy under Peter II's son, Alexander III.