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    • Who was the ruler of the Duchy of Pomerania?

      • The Duchy of Pomerania (German: Herzogtum Pommern, Polish: Księstwo Pomorskie) was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania (Griffins). The country had existed in the Middle Ages, in years 1121–1160, 1264–1295, 1478–1531 and 1625–1637.
  1. The Duchy of Pomerania (German: Herzogtum Pommern, Polish: Księstwo Pomorskie) was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania (Griffins). The country had existed in the Middle Ages, in years 1121–1160, 1264–1295, 1478–1531 and 1625–1637.

  2. Swedish Pomerania (Swedish: Svenska Pommern; German: Schwedisch-Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from 1630 to 1815, situated on what is now the Baltic coast of Germany and Poland. Following the Polish War and the Thirty Years' War , Sweden held extensive control over the lands on the southern Baltic coast, including Pomerania and ...

    • Principality
    • Stettin, (1630–1720), Stralsund, (1720–1814)
  3. People also ask

    Who was the ruler of the Duchy of Pomerania?

    When did Swedish Pomerania become part of Germany?

    What was the history of the Pomeranian province?

    Who are the members of the government of Pomerania?

    • Origins
    • German Settlement
    • Pomerania-Demmin and Pomerania-Stettin
    • Territorial Changes in The 13th Century
    • Pomerania-Wolgast and -Stettin After The Partition of 1295
    • Partition of Pomerania-Wolgast (1368–72): Pomerania-Wolgast and Pomerania-Stolp
    • Between The Partition of 1368 and The Reunfication in 1478
    • Bogislaw X Becomes Sole Ruler of The Duchy of Pomerania
    • Protestant Reformation
    • Partition of 1532: Pomerania-Stettin and Pomerania-Wolgast

    In the 12th century, Poland, the Holy Roman Empire's Duchy of Saxony and Denmark conquered Pomerania, ending the tribal era.

    Starting in the 12th century, Pomerania was settled with Germans in a process termed Ostsiedlung, that affected all medieval East Central and Eastern Europe. Except for the Pomerelian Kashubians and the Slovincians, the Wends were assimilated. Most towns and villages are dating back to this period.

    In 1155, the duchy was partitioned in Pomerania-Demmin and Pomerania-Stettin.With short interruptions, this division lasted until 1264. Wartislaw I was murdered between 1134 and 1148 in Stolpe. His brother, Ratibor I of Schlawe-Stolp, founded Stolpe Abbey near this site and ruled Wartislaw's realm in place of his minor nephews, Bogislaw I and Casimir I. Ratibor died in 1155, and Wartislaw's sons agreed to co-rule the duchy from their residences Demmin (Casimir) and Stettin (Bogislaw). Except for the terra Kolberg, which was ruled as a co-dominion, they partitioned the duchy with Pomerania-Demmin comprising the upper Peene, Tollense, Dievenow and Rega areas, and Pomerania-Stettin comprising the Oder, Ihna and lower Peene areas. When Casimir I died in 1180, Bogislaw became the sole duke. Bogislaw I took his duchy as a fief from the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) in 1181, and from the Danish king Canute VIin 1185. When he died in 1187, his two sons Casimir II and Bogislaw...

    War with Brandenburg

    During the reign of Otto I, Margrave of Brandenburg and son of Albert I of Brandenburg (1100–1170), Brandenburg claimed sovereignty over Pomerania. Yet, in 1181, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I invested Duke Bogislaw I of the Griffin House of Pomerania with the Duchy of Slavia (Pomerania). This was not accepted by the Margraviate of Brandenburgand triggered several military conflicts. Between 1185 and 1227, Pomerania along with most of the southern Baltic coast remained under sovereignty of De...

    War with Silesia

    In 1234 and 1241, Silesian dukes Henry I and Henry II expanded their realm to the North, and even took control of areas north of the Warthe (Warta) river previously held by the Dukes of Pomerania. The Griffin dukes, Silesian Piasts, Dukes of Greater Poland, the bishops of Lebus and the bishops of Kammin all competed for the Warthe/Netze (Notec) area, centered around the burgh of Zantoch. Until 1250, Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania had recovered most of the previous Pomeranian territory and sought...

    Competition for Schlawe-Stolp

    The last member of the Ratiborides branch of the Griffins, Ratibor II, died in 1223. This led to a competition between the Griffins and the Pomerelian Samborides for inheritance of Schlawe-Stolp. Because Ratibor died during the Danish period, Denmark administered the area until she had to withdraw after the lost Battle of Bornhöved in 1227. Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania, took control of the lands immediately after the Danish withdrawal, but had to yield Pomerelian duke Swantopolk's rights, whos...

    The last duke of Demminhad died in 1264, and the 1236 territorial losses left Demmin at the westernmost edge of the Duchy of Pomerania. When Barmin I, for a short period sole ruler of the duchy, died in 1278, his oldest son Bogislaw IV took his father's seat. When his half-brothers Otto I and Barnim II reached adulthood in 1294, the brothers ruled in common until Barnim's death in 1295. Bogislaw and Otto now agreed on a partition of the duchy, that would last until 1464: Bogislaw's share was the area where the towns were under Lübeck law, that was Vorpommern north of the Peene river (though including Anklam and Demmin on its southern bank) and Farther Pomerania north of the Ihna and Stepenitz rivers, both areas were connected by the islands of Usedom and Wollin. Bogislaw made Wolgast his residence, thus the partition became known as Pomerania-Wolgast. Otto's share was the remainder between Peene and Ihna centered around Stettin, where the towns were under Magdeburg law. This partiti...

    After the death of Barnim IV of Pomerania-Wolgast in 1366, an armed conflict arose when Barnim's brother Bogislaw V refused to share his power with Barnim's sons, Wartislaw VI and Bogislaw VI, and his other brother, Wartislaw V, who in turn allied with Mecklenburg to enforce their claims. On May 25, 1368, a compromise was negotiated in Anklam, which was made a formal treaty on June 8, 1372 in Stargard,and resulted in a partition of Pomerania-Wolgast. Bogislaw V received most of the Farther Pomeranian parts. Excepted was the land of Neustettin, which was to be ruled by his brother Wartislaw V, and was integrated into Bogislaw's part-duchy only after his death in 1390. This eastern part duchy became known as Pomerania-Stolp.

    Further partition of Pomerania-Wolgast (1376–1425): Pomerania-Wolgast and Pomerania-Barth

    The western remainder of Pomerania-Wolgast was further partitioned between Bogislaw IV and Wartislaw VI on December 6, 1376. Wartislaw VI received Pomerania-(Wolgast)-Barth, the former principality of Rügen, and Bogislaw IV's Pomerania-Wolgast was reduced to an area between Greifswald and the Swine river. When Bogislaw VI died in 1393 and Wartislaw VI in 1394, the latter's sons Barnim VI and Wartislaw VIIIruled in common. On December 6, 1425, the western part of Pomerania-Wolgast (without Pom...


    The situation of the descendants of Bogislaw V, who ruled Pomerania-Stolp, differed somewhat from the situation of their western counterparts. The area was more sparsely settled and dominated by powerful noble families, so not much income could be derived by the dukes. On the other hand, the Stolpian branch of the House of Pomerania had relatives among the royal houses of Denmark and Poland. Casimir IV and Elisabeth, the children of Bogislaw V and his first wife Elisabeth, the daughter of Cas...


    Casimir V of Pomerania-Stettin at the same time allied with the Teutonic Knights and took part in the Battle of Grunwald, where he was caught by the Poles and bailed out by the Knights after the First Peace of Thorn. The main concern of the Stettin dukes however was Brandenburg, namely the Neumark and Uckermark regions. Casimir III died in 1372 during a siege of Königsberg (Neumark), after he had managed to receive an empirial approval of his Uckermark possessions in 1370. On May 17, 1373, al...

    Pomerania-Wolgast was reunited following the death of both Barnim VII and Barnim VIII in 1451. Both dukes died of the . The same disease caused the death of Joachim of Pomerania-Stettin (also in 1451), Ertmar and Swantibor, children of Wartislaw X, and Otto III of Pomerania-Stettin (all in 1464).Thus, the line of Pomerania-Stettin had died out. The extinction of the House of Pomerania-Stettin triggered a conflict about inheritance with the Margraviate of Brandenburg. In the Treaty of Soldin of 1466, a compromise was negotiated: Wartislaw X and Eric II, the dukes of Pomerania, took over Pomerania-Stettin as a Brandenburgian fief. This was disputed already during the same year by the emperor, who intervened against the Brandenburgian overlordship of Pomerania. This led to a series of further warfare and truces, that were ended by the Treaty of Prenzlau of 1472, basically confirming the ruling of the Soldin treaty, but settling on a border north of Gartz (Oder)resembling Brandenburg's...

    The Protestant Reformation reached Pomerania in the early 16th century. Bogislaw X in 1518 sent his son, Barnim IX, to study in Wittenberg. In 1521, he personally attended a mass of Martin Luther in Wittenberg, and also of other reformed preachers in the following years. Also in 1521, Johannes Bugenhagen, the most important person in the following conversion of Pomerania to Protestantism, left Belbuck Abbey to study in Wittenberg, close to Luther. In Belbuck, a circle had formed before, comprising not only Bugenhagen, but also Johann Boldewan, Christian Ketelhut, Andreas Knöpke and Johannes Kureke. These persons, and also Johannes Knipstro, Paul vom Rode, Peter Suawe, Jacob Hogensee and Johann Amandusspread the Protestant idea all over Pomerania. At several occasions, this went along with public outrage, plunder and arson directed against the church. The dukes' role in the reformation process was ambitious. Bogislaw X, despite his sympathies, forbade Protestant preaching and tumults...

    After Bogislaw X's death, his sons initially ruled in common. Yet, after Georg's death, the duchy was partitioned again between Barnim IX, who resided in Stettin, and Phillip I, who resided in Wolgast. The border ran roughly along the Oder and Swine rivers, with Pomerania-Wolgast now consisting of Hither or Western Pomerania (Vorpommern, yet without Stettin and Gartz (Oder) on the Oder river's left bank, and with Greifenberg on its right bank), and Pomerania-Stettin consisting of Farther Pomerania. The secular possessions of the Diocese of Cammin around Kolberg (Kolobrzeg) subsequently came controlled by the dukes, when members of the ducal family were made titular bishops of Cammin since 1556. Despite the division, the duchy maintained one central government.

    • Early Medieval Prelude
    • House of Ascania vs House of Pomerania
    • House of Pomerania vs House of Wittelsbach
    • House of Luxembourg vs House of Pomerania
    • House of Hohenzollern vs House of Pomerania
    • House of Hohenzollern vs House of Sweden

    In the 10th century, the area of the future Brandenburg and Pomerania was inhabited by West Slavic tribes, collectively known as Wends. Roughly, the tribes east of the Oder and north of the Warta (Warthe) rivers constituted the Pomeranians and the tribes west of the Oder the Luticians. The classification is uncertain for the tribes living close to the lower Oder, that is the Velunzani on the islands in the Oder estuary, the Prissani on the eastern bank of the lower Oder, and the Ukrani and Recani on the western bank of the lower Oder, which became known as the Uckermark. The tribes west of the Oder were organized in marches of the Ottonian (Liudolfing) realm, which became the Holy Roman Empire with the coronation of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor in 962. The marches set up in the area of the future Brandenburg and Pomerania were the Billung March in the north, and the Saxon Eastern March in the south; the boundary was the Peene river. The Saxon Eastern March was soon partitioned, with t...

    Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania and first verified member of the House of Pomerania, conquered the Peene and Tollense areas west of the lower Oder from the Luticians during the 1120s. Albert (Albrecht) the Bear, invested with the March of Lusatia in 1123, was ready to succeed deceased Henry, Count of Stade as margrave of the Northern March in 1128, and was invested with the march by Holy Roman Emperor Lothair of Supplinburg in 1134, after he had already secured his succession of Pribislaw of the Hevelli in 1129. In 1128, Albert participated in the organization of the mission of Otto of Bamberg in the Lutician areas held by Wartislaw I of Pomerania, and supplied him with an escort. When in 1136 Emperor Lothair gave lands in the Peene area to Otto's bishopric of Bamberg, Albert was asked to approve first. Focused on the Northern March, Albert renounced his post as the margrave of Lusatia in 1136, which was then fused into the March of Meißen and became the basis of the state of the Hou...

    The House of Wittelsbach (also House of Bavaria) did not immediately succeed the House of Ascania as margraves of Brandenburg: Since the electors of the Holy Roman Emperor disagreed in 1314, a war ensued between the two candidates Louis of Wittelsbach and Frederick of Habsburg that lasted until 1322, when Louis prevailed in the Battle of Mühldorf. Thus, the death of Ascanian margrave Waldemar was not followed by a proper investiture of another noble with the Margraviate of Brandenburgdue to the lack of an established emperor. The closest relative of deceased Waldemar was his ten-year-old cousin Henry, who is unlikely to have had valid claims on the margraviate. Henry was the son of Waldermar's uncle Henry of Landsberg, a distant relative of both Wartislaw IV, Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast and Rudolf I, Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg from another line of the House of Ascania, who was married to a daughter of former Ascanian margrave Otto V.Wartislaw IV quickly advanced into eastern Brandenburg,...

    The Pomeranian dukes were on good terms with Charles IV, who gained the Electorate of Brandenburg for his House of Luxembourg de facto from 1365 to 1371, and de jure in 1373. Charles IV had granted the House of Pomerania their Duchy of Pomerania as an imperial fief,and border disputes were settled or suspended. Charles IV's heirs did not continue his policy of territorial integration and economical consolidation in Brandenburg: instead, the electorate faced internal partitions and economical decay. The Pomeranian dukes discontinued the formerly good relations with the Luxembourgians and successfully campaigned in the Uckermark on their own initiative or as allies of Brandenburg's opponents, shifting the border with Brandenburg southwards beyond Prenzlau. In 1411, the Luxembourgians resigned from the electorate, and transferred their title to Frederick IV, Burgrave of Nuremberg of the House of Hohenzollern (also House of Zollern),who started his reign in Brandenburg as Frederick I.

    When Frederick I of the House of Hohenzollern took over the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1411, he and his successors restricted the influence of the local nobles, towns and clergy, and followed a policy of territorial expansion. Since the eastern frontier with Pomerania, the Neumark, was pawned to the Teutonic Order state from 1402 to 1455, the western frontier (Uckermark) was in the focus of the Brandenburg–Pomeranian conflict: The first major battle between the Pomeranian and Hohenzollern armies took place in 1412 at Kremmer Damm, only one year after Frederick I had taken over the electorate. The Duchy of Pomerania was at that time internally divided into petty realms, each such Teilherzogtum was ruled by a distinct member of the House of Pomerania. The first series of wars was primarily fought between Frederick I and the dukes of Pomerania-Stettin, allied to the powerful Brandenburgian noble family von Quitzow, and resulted in some Brandenburgian gains, the expulsion of the von Q...

    Seven years before the last duke of the House of Pomerania died, which would have led to Brandenburgian succession in the Duchy of Pomerania, Swedish forces had occupied Pomerania in the course of the Thirty Years' War. By the death of Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania in 1637, Sweden refused to hand over the duchy to Brandenburg. When the war ended, Sweden and Brandenburg agreed in the Peace of Westphalia (1648) and the subsequent Treaty of Stettin (1653) to partition Pomerania by a divide just east of the Oder: Western Pomerania became Swedish Pomerania, while Farther Pomerania became Brandenburgian Pomerania. Brandenburg, later Brandenburg-Prussia, gained Swedish Pomerania step by step in the following centuries: most of the Swedish strip east of the Oder in the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye that ended the Scanian War in 1679, Swedish Pomerania south of the Peene and east of the Peenestrom rivers with Stettin in the Treaty of Frederiksborg and Treaty of Stockholm that ended the Gr...

    • Early History
    • Middle Ages
    • Early Modern Age
    • from Napoleon Until World War I
    • World War II and Beyond

    In the Early Stone Age, some 15,000 years ago, the glaciers ofthe last Ice Age moved northwards, leaving tundra, hills andnumerous small lakes in the regions of present northern Germany andPoland. During the Iron Age, the area was inhabited by numeroustribes. In the early centuries of the first millennium however,many tribes migrated from the region, leaving only a small numberof Germanic tribes behind.

    In the Early Middle Ages, West Slavic tribes settled in thelargely abandoned region. West of the Odra River, these tribes werereferred to as Veleti (or Luticians), whereas the tribes settlingbetween the Odra and the Wisla River were collectively known asPomeranians. Rügen was inhabited by tribe known as Rani. In the 11th and 12th century, the region was divided between theDukes of Pomerania (the Griffin dynasty) in the west, and theSamborides in the eastern part that is also known as Pomeralia.During these centuries, both duchies were at various times vassalstates of Denmark, the Holy Roman Empire and Poland. This was alsothe time when the population was converted to Christianity, mostlyby the German bishop Otto von Bamberg. Dioceses were foundedinitially in Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) and later in Wolin. At the end of the 12th century, the Duchy of Pomerania belongedto the Holy Roman Empire, the Principality of Rugia on the islandof Rügen to Denmark, and Brandenburg, Denmark and the Teuton...

    The 16th century Pomerania was marked by the ProtestantReformation and economic downturn. The Duchy of Pomerania was onceagain split and had several conflicts with Brandenburg. In 1627 itwas occupied by the Holy Roman Empire, and soon thereafter rolledinto the Thirty Years' War. As a result of the war Pomerania losttwo thirds of its population and many towns were destructed. ThePeace of Westphalia (1648) and the following Treaty of Stettin(1653) arranged western Pomerania to become part of the SwedishEmpire, and eastern Pomerania joining the Brandenburg-Prussiamonarchy (Royal Prussia), which was established in 1618 and alreadyincluded Pomeralia. During these wars, the Griffin Dynasty inPomerania came to an end. In the second half of the 17th century and first half of the18th century, a number of wars involving amongst others Sweden,Denmark, Prussia and Poland (known as the Nordic Wars) brought moreconflict and devastations to the region. Sweden lost its controlover its regions in we...

    Around the turn of the 18th century, Napoleonic Wars ravagedEurope. The Pomeranian province was invaded by French troops in1806 and again in 1812. Following the defeat of Napoleon, theKingdom of Prussia was reorganized its governmental divisions. Thelast Swedish remains in Pomerania were included in the newlyconstituted Pomeranian province with its seat in Szczecin.Pomerania was subdivided into the Stralsund, Stettin and Köslinregions. East of Pomerania the Province of West Prussia (later tobe joined with East Prussia) was subdivided into the regions ofDanzig and Marienwerder (Kwidzyn). In 1871 the Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck enforcedthe unification of Germany, resulting in the Kingdom of Prussia(including its Pomeranian and Prussian provinces) to become part ofthe German Empire. In 1914 Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany lead the country into WorldWar I. With the Treaty of Versailles Pomerania was divided betweenPoland and Germany. The West Prussian province became part ofP...

    Disputes regarding the rights to Danzig and German land transitover the Polish Corridor to East Prussia were used as reason forHitler's attack on Poland in 1939. The first shots were fired on 1September at Westerplatte near Danzig by a German warship. ByOctober the Polish Corridor and Danzig were taken by German troopsand annexed by Nazi-Germany as the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia.In the following years Hitler's troops moved eastwards via Polandto Russia. After the German defeat at Stalingrad, the Red Army ofthe Soviet Union rapidly progressed westwards. Pomerania wasconquered in the beginning of 1945, leaving vast devastations inthe entire region. With the advances of the Red Army, many Germans had fledwestwards, leaving the region largely depopulated. After the defeatof Nazi-Germany, the borders of Central Europe were redrawn. Thewestern part of the former Pomeranian Province became part of thenewly established country East-Germany and was later merged intothe State of Mecklenbur...

  4. › topic › Duchy_of_PomeraniaDuchy of Pomerania

    Afterwards, in the 12th century the area became part of the Griffin-ruled Duchy of Pomerania, a vassal state of Poland, which separated from Poland after the fragmentation of Poland into smaller duchies, and became a vassal of Denmark in 1185 and a part of the multi-ethnic Holy Roman Empire from 1227 to 1806.

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