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  1. Blood of the Irish: What DNA Tells Us About the Ancestry of ... › stem › Irish-Blood-Genetic-Identity
    • Blood of The Irish
    • Early Origins of Irish DNA
    • Where Did The Early Irish Come from?
    • Do Irish Origin Myths Match The Scientific Evidence?
    • Who Are The Closest Genetic relatives of The Irish?
    • Irish and British DNA: A Comparison
    • Irish Characteristics and DNA
    • Who Are The "Black Irish"?
    • Read More About The Origins of The People of Ireland
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    The blood in Irish veins is Celtic, right? Well, not exactly. Although the history that used to be taught at school said the Irish were a Celtic people who had migrated from central Europe, the latest studies of Irish DNA tell us a very different story. Research done into the DNA of the Irish has shown that our old understanding of where the population of Ireland originated may have been misguided. The modern Irish population share many genetic similarities with Scottish and Welsh populations, and to a lesser extent the English. At the same time, DNA testing of remains of ancient Irish people suggests that some of the earliest human arrivals on the island originally came from much further afield. This article is based on the research available in early 2018 - however new discoveries are being published regularly so if you want to keep up-to-date on this topic make sure you check online scientific journals such as Nature.

    The earliest settlers came to Ireland during the Stone Age, around 10,000 years ago. There are still remnants of their presence scattered across the island. Mountsandel in Coleraine in the North of Ireland is the oldest known site of settlement in Ireland—remains of woven huts, stone tools and food such as berries and hazelnuts were discovered at the site in 1972.

    For a long time the myth of Irish history has been that the Irish are Celts. Many people still refer to Irish, Scottish, and Welsh as Celtic culture. The assumption has been that they were Celts who migrated from central Europe around 500BCE. Keltoi was the name given by the Ancient Greeks to a 'barbaric' (in their eyes) people who lived to the north of them in central Europe. While early Irish art shows some similarities of style to central European art of the Keltoi, historians have also recognized many significant differences between the two cultures. Recent research into Irish DNA at the beginning of the twenty-first century suggests that the early inhabitants of Ireland were not directly descended from theKeltoi of central Europe. Genome sequencing performed on remains of early settlers in Ireland by researchers at Trinity University in Dublin and Queens University has revealed at least two waves of migration to the island in past millennia. Analysis of the remains of a 5,200 y...

    One of the oldest texts composed in Ireland is the Leabhar Gabhla, the Book of Invasions. It tells a semi-mythical history of the waves of people who settled in Ireland in earliest times. It says the first settlers to arrive in Ireland were a small dark people called the Fir Bolg, followed by a magical super-race called the Tuatha de Danaan (the people of the goddess Dana). Most interestingly, the book says that the group which then came to Ireland and fully established itself as rulers of the island were the Milesians—the sons of Mil, a soldier from Spain. Modern DNA research into male Y chromosomes has found that the the R1b haplogroup reaches very high concentrations in Western Ireland and the Basque country in northern Spain. While the picture for matrilineal descent (mother to daughter) is more complex, it seems that the northern Spanish and the Irish might have common male ancestors at some point in history. There are also interesting cultural similarities along the western se...

    Today, people living the north of Spain in the region known as the Basque Country share many DNA traits with the Irish. However, the Irish also share their DNA to a large extent with the people of Britain, especially the Scottish and Welsh. DNA testing of the male Y chromosome has shown that Irish males have the highest incidence of the R1b haplogroup in Europe. While other parts of Europe have integrated continuous waves of new settlers from the east, Ireland's remote geographical position has meant that the Irish gene-pool has been less susceptible to change. The same genes have been passed down from parents to children for thousands of years. The other region with very high levels of this male chromosome is the Basque region. This is mirrored in genetic studies which have compared DNA analysis with Irish surnames. Many surnames in Irish are Gaelic surnames, suggesting that the holder of the surname is a descendant of people who lived in Ireland long before the English conquests o...

    I live in Northern Ireland and in this small country the differences between the Irish and the British can still seem very important. Blood has been spilt over the question of national identity. However, research into both British and Irish DNA suggests that people on the two islands have much genetically in common. Males in both islands have a strong predominance of the Haplogroup 1 gene, meaning that most of us in the British Isles are descended from the same stone age settlers. The main difference is the degree to which later migrations of people to the islands affected the population's DNA. Parts of Ireland (most notably the western seaboard) have been almost untouched by outside genetic influence since early times. Men there with traditional Irish surnames have the highest incidence of the Haplogroup 1 gene - over 99%. At the same time London, for example, has been a mutli-ethnic city for hundreds of years. Furthermore, England has seen more arrivals of new people from Europe -...

    The MC1R gene has been identified by researchers as the gene responsible for red hair as well as the accompanying fair skin and tendency towards freckles. According to genetic research, genes for red hair first appeared in human beings about 40,000 to 50,000 years ago. These genes were then brought to the British Isles by the original settlers, men and women who would have been relatively tall, with little body fat, athletic, fair-skinned and who would have had red hair. So red-heads may well be descended from the earliest ancestors of the Irish and British.

    The origin of the term "Black Irish" and the people it describes are debated (see the comments below!). The phrase is ambiguous and is mainly used outside of Ireland to describe dark-haired people of Irish origin. The ambiguity comes in when trying to determine whether dark-haired Irish people are genetically distinct from Irish with lighter coloring. Dark hair is common in Ireland, while dark complexions are more rare. One theory about the origins of the term is that it describes Irish people who descend from survivors of the Spanish Armada. There are other hypotheses, mostly placing Irish ancestors on the Iberian peninsula or among the traders that sailed back and forth between Spain, North Africa, and Ireland, particularly around the Connemara region. Some "Black Irish" are of Irish-African descent, tracing their ancestry back to the slave trade. Many of these people live on Barbados and Montserrat. Some readers, writing below, with typical Black Irish coloring have had genetic t...

    Click on a title to read more about the history of the Irish people: 1. First peoples of Ireland 2. Life in Celtic Ireland

    CatClarkon May 01, 2018: This is a fascinating subject. As stated in my earlier comment here, I visited Northern Spain recently and saw at least 3 doubles. I'm Irish, hailing from Tipperary, and Ryan is my maiden name. My father had red hair. If the woman in the photograph that accompanies this article had dark hair and a widow's peak, she would be me in an earlier decade. Everyone wants to know where they came from. We are creatures of the past. Every thought and instinct, hope and wish we have is a product of our genes and history interacting with the present. Israel Putnamon October 30, 2017: Just received the results of DNA testing. My mother was all Irish, and referred to herself as “Black Irish,” having black hair and brown eyes; traits that I carry as well. Testing revealed 60% “Irish, Scottish, and Welsh” heritage. Oddly enough, I have carried a very Eastern European type last name through my life. Turns out, I have only a 1% portion of my DNA from Eastern Europe—and an equa...

    • Marie Mckeown
  2. The Different Dialects in North Carolina - North Carolina ... › nc-living › different

    Jan 16, 2009 · The Pamlico Sound region has one of the most distinct dialects in the state, according to Erik Thomas, associate professor of linguistics at N.C. State University. Settlers of the Pamlico Sound region came from either Southeastern or Southwestern England, and many migrated from the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia.

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  4. Western Pennsylvania English - Wikipedia › wiki › Pittsburgh_English

    Overview. Scots-Irish, Pennsylvania German, Polish, Ukrainian and Croatian immigrants to the area all provided certain loanwords to the dialect (see "Vocabulary" below). Many of the sounds and words found in the dialect are popularly thought to be unique to Pittsburgh, but that is a misconception since the dialect resides throughout the greater part of western Pennsylvania and the surrounding ...

  5. Irish DNA originated in Middle East and eastern Europe ... › science › 2015

    Dec 28, 2015 · Irish DNA originated in Middle East and eastern Europe Genome analysis shows mass migration of Stone Age farmers from Fertile Crescent and Bronze Age settlers from eastern Europe was foundation of...

  6. The Irish language, known as Gaelige in Irish, is a Celtic language. Records of Irish, the ancient and historic language of the Irish people, date back to the fifth century. Today, it's estimated that there are nearly 75,000 daily Irish speakers in Ireland, with over 1.5 million learning it as a second language.

  7. The Curious Case of the American Accent - Today I Found Out › index › 2016

    Oct 22, 2016 · Puritans who fled to the New World to escape religious persecution were, by and large, from the eastern counties of England. To this day, in remote parts of East Anglia, there are rural folk who speak in what is sometimes referred to as the “Norfolk whine.” When they came to New England, that accent came along with them.

  8. The New England Accent | Dialect | Ayuh | Wicked › lifeinnewengland › Essays

    the so-called Irish lilt and the Scottish burr from earlier times when most New Englanders were from these two countries along with, of course, the English. It’s generally difficult, unless you’re trained in the field, to tell if someone is from Maine, New Hampshire or Vermont — we all tend to sound alike in the tri-state area.

  9. Dec 14, 2017 · The Philadelphia dialect features a focused avoidance of the “th” sound, the swallowing of the L in lots of words, and wooder instead of water, among a zillion other things. In Pittsburgh, it ...

  10. Apr 15, 2013 · A language can be subdivided into any number of dialects which each vary in some way from the parent language. The term, accent , is often incorrectly used in its place, but an accent refers only to the way words are pronounced, while a dialect has its own grammar, vocabulary, syntax, and common expressions as well as pronunciation rules that ...

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