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The history of Africa begins from the first modern human beingsand leads to its present difficult state as a politically developing continent. Africa's ancient historic period includes the rise of Egyptian civilization, the further development of societies outside the Nile River Valley and the interaction between them and civilizations outside of Africa. In the late 7th century North and East Africa were heavily influenced by the spread of Islam. That led to the appearance of new cultures such as those of the Swahili people, and the Mali Empire, whose king, Musa Keita I, became one of the richest and most influential people of the early 14th century. This also led to an increase in the slave tradethat had a very bad influence for the development of the whole continent until the 19th century.
From north to south, Africa has most types of climate. In sequence from the north: 1. Alpine and mediterranean climate 2. Dry sandy desert 3. Fairly dry savannah (grassland) 4. Rain forest 5. More grassland 6. More deserts 7. Table Mountain Running north-east to the south is the East African Great Rift Valley. This has mountains, volcanoes, deep rifts and valleys, rivers and lakes. In fact Africa has examples of most of the Earth's climate types.
Africa has a lot of wildlife. There are many types of animals there. In particular, it is now the only continent that has many native species of large mammals. Some of them occur in very large numbers. There are antelope, buffalo, zebra, cheetah, elephant, lion, giraffe, rhinoceros, apes, hyaena, and a lot more. Over 2,000 types of fish live in African lakes and rivers.
The African Union (AU) is an international organisation. It aims to transform the African Economic Community, a federated commonwealth, into a state under established international conventions. The African Union has a parliamentary government, known as the African Union Government, consisting of legislative, judicial and executive organs. It is led by the African Union President and Head of State, who is also the President of the Pan African Parliament. A person becomes President of the AU by being elected to the PAP, and then gaining majority support in the PAP. Extensive human rights abuses still occur in several parts of Africa, often under the oversight of the state. Most of such violations occur for political reasons, often as a side effect of civil war. Countries where major human rights violations have been reported in recent times include Uganda, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Sudan, Zimbabwe, and Côte d'Ivoire.There are 54 UN member states in Africa.
People who come from Africa are called Africans. People in the north are called North Africans and people in the south are called South Africans. Languages in eastern Africa include Swahili, Oromo and Amharic. Languages in western Africa include Lingala, Igbo and Fulani. The most populated country in Africa is Nigeria.
Countries with significant African descendents outside Africa: 1. Haiti: 98% 2. Saint Kitts and Nevis: 96.9% 3. Anguilla: 91.4% 4. Bahamas: 86.1% 5. Barbados: 81.1% 6. Jamaica: 76.3% 7. Dominican Republic: 71.1% 8. Cayman Islands: 60.0% 9. Trinidad and Tobago: 39.5% 10. Cuba: 34.9% 11. Turks and Caicos: 34.0% 12. Belize: 29.8% 13. Venezuela: 24.0% 14. Panama: 22.0% 15. Colombia: 21.0% 16. Brazil: 13-19% 17. United States: 12.9% 18. Puerto Rico: 6.9% 19. Argentina: less than 2%African & Middle Eastern Reading Room from the United States Library of CongressAfrica South of the Sahara from Stanford University
The history of Africa begins with the emergence of hominids, archaic humans and—at least 200,000 years ago—anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens), in East Africa, and continues unbroken into the present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states.
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South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa ( RSA ), is a country in Southern Africa. With over 59 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of 1,221,037 square kilometres (471,445 square miles). South Africa has three capital cities: executive Pretoria, judicial Bloemfontein and legislative Cape Town.
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The "Scramble for Africa" between 1870 and 1900 ended with almost all of Africa being controlled by a small number of European states. Racing to secure as much land as possible while avoiding conflict amongst themselves, the partition of Africa was confirmed in the Berlin Agreement of 1885, with little regard to local differences. By 1905, control of almost all African soil was claimed by Western European governments, with the only exceptions being Liberia (which had been settled by African-American former slaves) and Ethiopia (then occupied by Italy in 1936). Britain and France had the largest holdings, but Germany, Spain, Italy, Belgium, and Portugal also had colonies. As a result of colonialism and imperialism, a majority of Africa lost sovereignty and control of natural resources such as gold and rubber. The introduction of imperial policies surfacing around local economies led to the failing of local economies due to an exploitation of resources and cheap labor.Progress towards...
During the world wars, African soldiers were conscripted into imperial militaries. This led to a deeper political awareness and the expectation of greater respect and self-determination, which was left largely unfulfilled. During the 1941 Atlantic Conference, the British and the US leaders met to discuss ideas for the post-war world. One of the provisions added by President Roosevelt was that all people had the right to self-determination, inspiring hope in British colonies. On February 12, 1...
Colonial economic exploitation involved the siphoning off of resource extraction (such as mining) profits to European shareholders at the expense of internal development, causing major local socioeconomic grievances.For early African nationalists, decolonisation was a moral imperative around which a political power base could be assembled. In the 1930s, the colonial powers had cultivated, sometimes inadvertently, a small elite of local African leaders educated in Western universities, where t...
There is an extensive body of literature that has examined the legacy of colonialism and colonial institutions on economic outcomes in Africa, with numerous studies showing disputed economic effects of colonialism. The economic legacy of colonialism is difficult to quantify and is disputed. Modernisation theory posits that colonial powers built infrastructure to integrate Africa into the world economy, however, this was built mainly for extraction purposes. African economies were structured to benefit the coloniser and any surplus was likely to be ‘drained’, thereby stifling capital accumulation. Dependency theory suggests that most African economies continued to occupy a subordinate position in the world economy after independence with a reliance on primary commodities such as copper in Zambia and tea in Kenya. Despite this continued reliance and unfair trading terms, a meta-analysisof 18 African countries found that a third of countries experienced increased economic growth post-i...
Scholars including Dellal (2013), Miraftab (2012) and Bamgbose (2011) have argued that Africa's linguistic diversity has been eroded. Language has been used by western colonial powers to divide territories and create new identities which has led to conflicts and tensions between African nations.
In the immediate post-independence period, African countries largely retained colonial legislation. However, by 2015 much colonial legislation had been replaced by laws that were written locally.
Following World War II, rapid decolonisation swept across the continent of Africa as many territories gained their independence from European colonisation. In August 1941, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met to discuss their post-war goals. In that meeting, they agreed to the Atlantic Charter, which in part stipulated that they would, "respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them." This agreement became the post-WWII stepping stone toward independence as nationalism grew throughout Africa. Consumed with post-war debt, European powers were no longer able to afford the resources needed to maintain control of their African colonies. This allowed for African nationalists to negotiate decolonisation very quickly and with minimal casualties. Some terri...
On 6 March 1957, Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast) became the second sub-Saharan African country to gain its independence from European colonisation. Starting with the 1945 Pan-African Congress, the Gold Coast's (modern-day Ghana's) independence leader Kwame Nkrumahmade his focus clear. In the conference's declaration, he wrote, "we believe in the rights of all peoples to govern themselves. We affirm the right of all colonial peoples to control their own destiny. All colonies must be free from...
Winds of Change
Prime Minister Harold Macmillan gave the famous "Wind of Change" speech in South Africa in February 1960, where he spoke of "the wind of change blowing through this continent". Macmillan urgently wanted to avoid the same kind of colonial warthat France was fighting in Algeria. Under his premiership decolonisation proceeded rapidly. Britain's remaining colonies in Africa, except for Southern Rhodesia, were all granted independence by 1968. British withdrawal from the southern and eastern parts...
The French colonial empire began to fall during the Second World War when the Vichy France regime controlled the Empire. One after another, most of the colonies were occupied by foreign powers (Japan in Indochina, Britain in Syria, Lebanon, and Madagascar, the United States and Britain in Morocco and Algeria, and Germany and Italy in Tunisia). Control was gradually reestablished by Charles de Gaulle, who used the colonial bases as a launching point to help expel the Vichy government from Metropolitan France. De Gaulle, together with most Frenchmen, was committed to preserving the Empire in the new form. The French Union, included in the Constitution of 1946, nominally replaced the former colonial empire, but officials in Paris remained in full control. The colonies were given local assemblies with only limited local power and budgets. A group of elites, known as evolués, who were natives of the overseas territories but lived in metropolitan France emerged. De Gaulle assembled a majo...
This table is the arranged by the earliest date of independence in this graph; 58 countries have seceded.Birmingham, David (1995). The Decolonization of Africa. Routledge. ISBN 1-85728-540-9.Brennan, James R. "The Cold War battle over global news in East Africa: decolonization, the free flow of information, and the media business, 1960-1980." Journal of Global History10.2 (2015): 333+.Brown, Judith M. and Wm. Roger Louis, eds. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume IV: The Twentieth Century (2001) pp 515–73. online
African (s) may refer to: Anything from or pertaining to the continent of Africa : People who are native to Africa, descendants of natives of Africa, or individuals who trace their ancestry to indigenous inhabitants of Africa. Ethnic groups of Africa. African diaspora.
Africa, dunia ke duusra sab se barraa continent aur isme dunia ke jamin ke 20% se jaada area hae. Ii continent me 61 des hae, aur dunia ke 14% abaadi hian pe rahe hae. Ii socha jaae hae ki insaan ke suruwaat pahile ii continent me bhais rahaa.
África es el tercer continente más extenso, tras Asia y América. Está situado entre los océanos Atlántico, al oeste, e Índico, al este. El mar Mediterráneo lo separa al norte del continente europeo; el punto en el que los dos continentes se hallan más cercanos es el estrecho de Gibraltar de 14.4 km de ancho.
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Originea cuvântului Aferpoate proveni din: 1. feniciană, `afar(praf); 2. Afri, un trib - posibil berber - din nordul Africii, în apropiere de Cartagina; 3. cuvântul grecesc aphrike(fără frig) 4. sau din cuvântul latin aprica(însorit).
Africa este continentul cu clima cea mai caldă de pe glob, cu o zonă de climă ecuatorială (cu temperaturi medii anuale având variații sezoniere reduse și cantități mari de precipitații), două zone de climă subecuatorială, două zone tropicale cu precipitații extrem de reduse (între 50 și 150 mm anual) și două zone subtropicale (cu două sezoane opuse, ploios și secetos). Temperatura cea mai ridicată (58°C) s-a înregistrat la Aztztyah (Libia) la 13 septembrie 1922. Valorile termice de peste 40°C sunt frecvente în întreaga Sahară.
Africa este un continent al contrastelor: - al pădurii ecuatoriale, luxuriante și de nepătruns, dar și al întinselor pustiuri, în care nu întâlnești, pe zeci și sute de km pătrați, niciun arbore și în care nu cade, ani în șir, nici o picătura de ploaie; - al unora dintre cele mai mari bogății de pe glob, dar și a celor mai multe țări sărace, cu un nivel de trai al populației necorespunzător; - continent care se înscrie în aria antropogenezei (cu cele mai vechi fosilecunoscute ale strămoșilor omului) și unde au apărut câteva dintre cele mai vechi și strălucite civilizații ale antichității (egipteană, nubiană, axumită, feniciană, ș.a.), dar și ultimul care a devenit liber, cele mai multe țări africane dobândindu-și independența abia în ultimele decenii ale secolului al-XX-lea. - continentul care a plătit cel mai scump tribut sclaviei, dar care în prezent are cea mai puternică forță de regenerare, înregistrând cea mai ridicată pondere a tinerilor în totalul populației. Africa este sing...
În aproape toate țările din Africa agricultura continuă să fie cea mai importantă activitate economică, în ciuda expansiunii industriei si serviciilor si a importantei din ce în ce mai mari a acestor activități. Agricultura este o ramură cu un caracter dualist, utilizând atât tehnici rudimentare, tradiționale, cât și tehnici moderne, de mare randament. În Africa există un amestec de forme de proprietate si de sisteme de exploatare a terenurilor, determinate de condițiile naturale, dar si de c...
Sectorul zootehnic ocupa un loc modest în Africa. Se cresc 189 milioane bovine și 205 milioane ovine și caprine, efective mult sub posibilitățile cadrului natural. La sud de Sahara există mari densități de mamifere în rezervații (de exemplu, în parcul Serengeti). Africanii preferă vânatul și nu au îmblânzit animale. Cele domestice crescute în prezent au fost introduse de europeni sau de asiatici, deși fondul faunistic al continentului oferă specii care s-ar putea preta la îmblânzire (antilopa...
Africa este cel mai vechi teritoriu locuit de pe pământ, rasa umană avându-și originea pe acest continent. Începând cu secolul 19, dar mai ales pe parcursul secolului 20, diverși antropologi au descoperit fosile și alte dovezi ce atestă prezența în Africa a unor specii umanoide acum 7 milioane de ani. De-a lungul perioadei preistorice, în Africa nu au existat state organizate, continentul fiind locuit de grupuri de vânători/culegători, organizate în structuri tribale, precum Khoi și San (cunoscuți și sub numele de boșimani). Majoritatea urmașilor de azi ai boșimanilor trăiesc în Botswana și Namibia, iar limba vorbită de ei, limba N/U, este considerata cea mai veche limbă ce a supraviețuit până azi. Înregistrarea scrisă a istoriei începe în Africa în jurul datei de 3300 î.Hr, odată cu dezvoltarea civilizației egiptene. Alte civilizații puternice ce apar în Africa în această perioadă sunt Imperiul Axumit din Etiopia, regatul Nubian, Cartagina, regatele Sahel-ului (Ghana, Mali, Songhai...
1 Regiuni după UN categorisations/map. 2 Exclavă spaniolă în Maroc. 3 Egipt este o țară transcontinentală în Africa de Nord și Asia de Vest; populația este doar pentru partea africană, la vest de Canalul Suez. 4 Teritoriul Saharei Occidentale este aproape în întregime ocupat de către Maroc, situație care nu este recunoscută de ONU. 5 El Aaiún este ocupat de Maroc. Tindouf în Algeria este capitala de facto. 6 Bloemfontein este capitala juridică, Cape Town capitala legislativă, iar Pretoria capitala administrativă. 7 Mbabane este capitala administrativă, iar Lobamba capitala legislativă. 8 Cotonou este capitala administrativă, iar Porto Novo capitala de jure. 9 Abidjan este capitala administrativă, iar Yamoussoukrocapitala de jure.Hârjoabă I., Rusu E. (1995) – Geografia continentelor: Africa, Edit. Didactică și Pedagogică, BucureștiNewman L., - Africa
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Jul 12, 2021 · The 2021 South Africa unrest is a series of ongoing riots and protests in the South African provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng that began on the evening of Sunday, 11th of July 2021. The riots began as a protest following the arrest and detainment of former South African president, Jacob Zuma, who was arrested after defying to testify at ...