Łódź (Polish: ()), written in English as Lodz, is the third-largest city in Poland and a former industrial centre. Located in the central part of the country, it has a population of 679,941 (2019).https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Łódź
The third-largest city in Poland, Lodz's historical and global significance is largely due to the ghetto that was built there during World War II. Strolling the picturesque central streets will give you an appreciation for the strength of this city and its citizens.
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The city of Lodz is located about 75 miles southwest of Warsaw, Poland. The Jews of Lodz formed the second largest Jewish community in prewar Poland, after Warsaw. German troops occupied Lodz one week after Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Lodz was annexed to Germany as part of the Warthegau.
Equally popular is Piotrkowska Street – Poland’s longest promenade, lined with boutiques, clubs, pubs and statues of famous Polish artists; the most spectacular of which portrays Artur Rubinstein playing the piano. This is an obligatory photo opportunity you won’t be able to resist!
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Łódź, city, capital of Łódzkie województwo (province), central Poland. It lies on the northwestern edge of the Łódź Highlands, on the watershed of the Vistula and Oder rivers, 81 miles (130 km) southwest of Warsaw. Łódź is mentioned in 14th-century records as a village. It acquired municipal rights
- 18th & 19th Century
- Early 20th Century
- The Holocaust
- Post-World War II and The Present
- Jewish Sites
Jews began settling Lodz in the late 1700’s. In 1793, there were 11 Jews living in Lodz. This number increased, by 1809 (while under Prussian Rule), to about 100 and to 259 in 1820. At that time, the Jewish community began to be organized and had built a synagogue. A cemetery was opened from 1811 until 1892, unfortunately it was destroyed in World War II. Lodz fell under Russian control in the 1820’s. During this time, Jewish factory owners, merchants, bankers, industrialists and blue-collar workers played an important role in developing Lodz’s economy, and the city became an important industrial center. Restrictions were placed on settling and owning property in the city, as well as selling liquor. The restrictions eased when it was announced that in 1827 Jews could buy building sites and could build and own homes in certain districts. The Jews, who could live in the city had to assimilate, i.e., speak Polish, French or German, send their children to general schools and forgo weari...
Jews were an integral part of the textile industry of Lodz, which was known as the “Manchester of Poland.” Jews owned 175 factories by 1914. One of the most well-known plants was the I.K Poznanski plant, which was one of the largest textile plants in Europe. World War I devastated the city of Lodz. Many factories were destroyed. Jewish industrialists were not given financial support from the government to rebuild. Anti-Jewish policies were enacted in the inter-war period; nevertheless, Jews continued to work and prosper. The ready-made tailoring industry was almost entirely composed of Jewish tailors. Jews were also active in building and related industries. Jewish merchants formed a union while other smaller Jewish unions existed for the tradesmen and retailers. Members of the Jewish trade unions were approached by the Bund, a Jewish socialist movement, as well as the Po'alei Zionand Polish Socialist Party for their votes for the Jewish Community Council of Lodz. Jews also maintain...
Prior to World War II, the Jewish population of Lodz numbered about 233,000, roughly one-third of the city’s population and the second largest Jewish community in Europe. At the outbreak of the War, many Jews left the city, in fear of persecution, to settle in Warsaw and other cities in the General Government or to the territories occupied by the U.S.S.R. The German army entered Lodz on September 8, 1939. The Germans forced many Jews to leave Lodz and deported them to cities in the General Government. Between September 30 and May 1, 1940, 70,000 Jews left Lodz. The Lodz ghetto was established in February 1940. About 200,000 Jews were forced to live in the ghetto. On March 1, 1940, bloody Tuesday, the Germans organized a pogromto drive more Jews into the ghetto. The ghetto was officially sealed in May 1940. A network of 70 factories was built in the ghetto to produce goods for the Wehrmacht. It is estimated that the Lodz ghetto factories generated $14 million in profit for the German...
Within two years after the end of German occupation of Lodz, the Jewish community was rebuilt to be the second largest in Poland. More than 50,000 Jews settled in Lodz by the end of 1946, many of whom lived in the USSR during the Holocaust. Jewish institutions were rebuilt and operated until 1950, when Poland fell under complete Soviet control. Half of Lodz’s Jewish population left for Israel by 1950. A second wave of immigration to Israel took place in 1956-57. Only a few thousand Jews remained, however, most of them left after an escalation in anti-Semitism following Israel’s Six-Day Warin 1967. Today only a few hundred Jews live in Lodz. In 1968, facing criticism and pressure from the government, the only full-time Jewish school in Lodz closed its doors. For the next 47 years, after the close of the I.L. Peretz school, Jewish youth in Lodz did not have a full-time Jewish education option. The first Jewish day school to open in Lodz since the closure, the Gan Matanel school, welco...
Most of Lodz was looted or destroyed during the Holocaust, including one of its main synagogues, the Alte Shul, which was built in 1809. Only one synagogue, from the late 18th century, remains and is functioning; it can be found on Rewolucji St. 1905. The synagogue survived World War II because of its location, hidden in a corner of the ghetto. There is also the site of the former Bet Midrash located on ul. Piotrkowska 114/116. Originally built in 1899, it was used as a kosherslaughterhouse. It is currently undergoing restorations. A new cemetery was founded in 1892 to replace an earlier one, which no longer exists. Before the war, this new cemetery contained more than 180,000 graves, some of which remain. It was the largest Jewish cemetery in Europe. The tombstones are elaborate and contain Judaic symbols and folk art. There is a mausoleum for the Jewish factory owner I.K Poznanski, which is as large as a house. The Poznanski mansions are open to the public. His domed mansion on ul...
Only seven days after the attack on Poland began, however, Lodz was occupied. Within days of Lodz's occupation, the Jews of the city became targets for beatings, robberies, and seizure of property. Six days after the occupation of Lodz, on September 14, 1939, was Rosh Hashanah , one of the holiest days within the Jewish religion.
Lodz administration records during WWI; Jews in the Lodz Ghetto 1940-1944; Management Board of the Warsaw Ghetto 1939-1945; Construction projects in Lodz, 1867-1918, commercial and private, official records; AGoFF genealogy group for Germans in Poland, a few free tips, registration for more research; Chronicle of the Lodz Ghetto . LIBRARIES IN LODZ