Poland has over 70 mountains over 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) in elevation, all situated in the Tatras. Poland's highest point is the north-western summit of Mount Rysy at 2,501 metres (8,205 ft) in elevation. At its foot lie the mountain lakes of Czarny Staw (Black Lake) and Morskie Oko (Eye of the Sea), both naturally-made tarns.
Poland was established as a state under the Piast dynasty, which ruled the country between the 10th and 14th centuries.Historical records referring to the Polish state begin with the rule of Duke Mieszko I, whose reign commenced sometime before 963 and continued until his death in 992.
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The first sign of humans in Polish lands was 500,000 years ago. The Bronze Age started around 2400-2300 BC. The Iron Age started around 750-700 BC. At that time the Polish lands were under the influence of the Lusatian culture. About 400 BC Celtic and Germanic tribes lived there. Those people had trade contacts with the Roman Empire. Over time, Slavs came to Polish lands. Some of those Slavs, now commonly referred to as Western Slavs (though in reality a diverse group of tribes with shared et...
Piast and Jagiellon dynasties
Poland began to form into a country around the middle of the 10th century in the Piast dynasty. In 966, Prince Mieszko I became a Christian, and so the Polish people also became Christians. The next king was Bolesław I of Poland (called Bolesław the Brave). He conquered many lands and he became the first King of Poland. Casimir I of Poland changed the Polish capital from Gniezno to Kraków. In the 12th century Poland broke into some smaller states after the death of King Bolesław III Wrymouth...
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to Second Republic of Poland
In the 17th century Sweden attacked almost all of Poland (this was called “the Deluge”). Many wars against the Ottoman Empire, Russia, Cossacks, Transylvania and Brandenburg-Prussia ended in 1699. For the next 80 years, the government and the nation were weak, making Poland dependent on Russia. Russian tsars took advantage of this by offering money to dishonest members of the Polish government, who would block new ideas and solutions. Russia, Prussia, and Austria broke Poland into three piece...
Poland's territory is a plain reaching from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Carpathian Mountainsin the south. Within that plain, the land varies from east to west. The Polish Baltic coast is mostly smooth but has natural harbors in the Gdańsk-Gdynia region and Szczecin in the far northwest. This coast has several spits, dunes and coastal lakes. Coast lakes are former bays that have been cut off from the sea. These areas are sometimes called lagoons. Szczecin Lagoon is on the western border with Germany. The Vistula Lagoon is on the eastern border with Kaliningrad, province of Russia. The longest river in Poland, the Vistula river, empties into the Vistula Lagoon and also directly into the Baltic Sea. The northeastern region is densely wooded, sparsely populated and lacks agricultural and industrial resources. The geographical region has four hilly districts of moraines and lakes created by moraines. These formed during and after the Pleistocene ice age. The Masurian Lake District...
Almost no Polish literature remains before Christianisation in the 10th century. Polish literature was written in the Latin language during the Middle Ages. The Polish language was accepted as equal to Latin after the Renaissancefor literature. Jan Kochanowski was a leading poet of European Renaissance literature in the 16th century. Other great Polish poets include Adam Mickiewicz who wrote Pan Tadeuszepic in 1834. Several Polish novelists have won the Nobel prize. Henryk Sienkiewicz won in 19 dramatized versions of famous events in Polish history. Władysław Reymont won a Nobel prize in 1924. He wrote the novel Chłopi. Two polish poets won Nobel prize as well. One is Wisława Szymborska (1996) and the second Czesław Miłosz(1980). Stanisław Lem is a famous science fiction author in the modern era. His Solaris novel was made twice into a feature film.
In the past, Poland was inhabited by people from different nations and of different religions (mainly Catholics, Orthodox and Judaism). This changed after 1939, because of the Nazi Holocaust which killed many Polish Jews. After World War II, the country was changed into a communist country, by the Warsaw Pact which included most central European countries and Russia Russia. Today 38,038,000 people live in Poland (2011). In 2002 96.74% of the population call themselves Polish, while 471,500 people (1.23%) claimed another nationality. 774,900 people (2.03%) did not declare any nationality. Nationalities, or ethnic groups in Poland are Silesians, Germans (most in the former Opole Voivodeship), Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Russians, Jews and Belarusians. The Polish language is part of the West Slavic section of the Slavic languages. It is also the official language of Poland. English and Germanare the most common second languages studied and spoken. In the past few years, Poland's populatio...Nicolaus Copernicus, an astronomer who showed that the Earth moves around the Sun.Maria Skłodowska-Curie discovered radium and polonium.
- Chapter summary
Poland is a historical novel written by James A. Michener and published in 1983 detailing the times and tribulations of three interconnected Polish families across eight centuries, ending in the then-present day. The Lubonski family is one of the princely houses of Poland, its wealthy patriarchs generally ruling over their region; the Bukowski family are petty nobles, with a well-known and respected name but typically little money; and the Buk family are impoverished peasants. Despite their dras
Michener was hired by a television company to travel to a foreign country to shoot a documentary. He was offered support to go anywhere in the world and Michener decided to make the trip to Poland. Following this, Michener made several trips back to Poland and conducted extensive study of Poland's history and culture. He began writing the book in 1979 and it was published four years later. Like Michener's other works, he includes an acknowledgments section at the beginning of the book; however d
The book, written in an episodic format, tells the story of three families and the many generations of each family throughout the history of Poland. The three families are fictional as are the other characters in the book. The plot, however, takes place throughout the history of Poland and contains many historic people. The events are largely real events in which the fictional characters interact. The book spans over seven hundred years.
Poland received mostly favorable reviews and was #1 on the New York Times bestseller list.
The Republic o Poland ( Pols: Rzeczpospolita Polska ), for ordinar kent juist as Poland ( Polska ), is a kintra in central/aestren Europe. It mairches ontae the Baltic Sea tae the north, alang wi the Kaliningrad Oblast o Roushie. Lithuanie mairches tae the nor-aest, Beloroushae tae the aest, Ukraine tae the sooth-aest, Slovakie an Czechie tae ...
The invasion of Poland (1 September – 6 October 1939), also known as the September campaign (Polish: Kampania wrześniowa), 1939 defensive war (Polish: Wojna obronna 1939 roku) and Poland campaign (German: Überfall auf Polen, Polenfeldzug), was an attack on the Republic of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union which marked the beginning of World War II.