Second language From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A person's second language, or L2, is a language that is not the native language (first language or L1) of the speaker, but is learned later (usually as a foreign language, but it can be another language used in the speaker's home country).
- Lists of Languages by Number of Speakers
Index of language articles; Comprehensive lists. Lists which...
- Second-language acquisition
The distinction between acquiring and learning was made by...
- Lists of Languages by Number of Speakers
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A second language is a language that a person learns in addition to their first language. A second language may be learned in a formal or informal way, such as at school or in a family. A person may speak two or more second languages.
Second language refers to any language learned in addition to a person's first language; although the concept is named second -language acquisition, it can also incorporate the learning of third, fourth, or subsequent languages.
- Terminology and Types
- Difficulties For Learners
- Social Challenges and Benefits
- Peer Tutoring For ESL Students
- Exams For Learners
- Qualifications For Teachers
- Professional Associations and Unions
- Acronyms and Abbreviations
- External Links
The many acronyms and abbreviations used in the field of English teaching and learning may be confusing and the following technical definitions may have their currency contested upon various grounds. The precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English as a second language, but they may also be used in relation to demographic information. English language teaching (ELT) is a widely used teacher-centered term, as in the English language teaching divisions of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. Teaching English as a second language (TESL), teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL), and teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) are also used. Other terms used in this field include English as an international language (EIL), English as a lingua franca (ELF), English for special purposes...
Language teaching practice often assumes that most of the difficulties that learners face in the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English (a contrastive analysis approach). A native speaker of Chinese, for example, may face many more difficulties than a native speaker of German, because German is more closely related to English than Chinese. This may be true for anyone of any mother tongue (also called the first language, normally abbreviated L1) setting out to learn any other language (called a target language, second language or L2). See also second language acquisition(SLA) for mixed evidence from linguistic research. Language learners often produce errors of syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation thought to result from the influence of their L1, such as mapping its grammatical patterns inappropriately onto the L2, pronouncing certain sounds incorrectly or with difficulty, and confusing items of vocabulary known as false...
ESL students often suffer from the effects of tracking and ability grouping. Students are often placed into low ability groups based on scores on standardized tests in English and math. There is also low mobility among these students from low to high performing groups, which can prevent them from achieving the same academic progress as native speakers. Similar tests are also used to place ESL students in college-level courses. Students have voiced frustration that only non-native students hav...
Dropout rates for ESL students in multiple countries are much higher than dropout rates for native speakers. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the United States reported that the percentage of dropouts in the non-native born Hispanic youth population between the ages of 16 and 24 years old is 43.4%. A study in Canada found that the high school dropout rate for all ESL students was 74%.High dropout rates are thought to be due to difficulties ESL students have in keeping up...
Access to higher education
ESL students face several barriers to higher education. Most colleges and universities require four years of English in high school. In addition, most colleges and universities only accept one year of ESL English. It is difficult for ESL students that arrive in the United States relatively late to finish this requirement because they must spend a longer time in ESL English classes in high school, or they might not arrive early enough to complete four years of English in high school. This resu...
Peer tutoring refers to an instructional method that pairs up low-achieving English readers, with ESL students that know minimal English and who are also approximately the same age and same grade level. The goal of this dynamic is to help both the tutor, in this case, the English speaker, and the tutee, the ESL student. Monolingualtutors are given the class material in order to provide tutoring to their assigned ESL tutee. Once the tutor has had the chance to help the student, classmates get to switch roles in order to give both peers an opportunity to learn from each other. In a study, which conducted a similar research, their results indicated that low-achieving readers that were chosen as tutors, made a lot of progress by using this procedure. In addition, ESL students were also able to improve their grades due to the fact that they increased their approach in reading acquisition skills.
Learners of English are often eager to get accreditation and a number of exams are known internationally: 1. IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is the world's most popular English test for higher education and immigration. It is managed by the British Council, Cambridge Assessment English and IDP Education. It is offered in Academic, General and Life Skills versions. IELTS Academic is the normal test of English proficiency for entry into universities in the UK, Australia, Canada, and other British Englishcountries. IELTS General is required for immigration into Australia and New Zealand. Both versions of IELTS are accepted for all classes of UK visa and immigration applications. IELTS Life Skills, was introduced in 2015 specifically to meet the requirements for some classes of UK visa application. 2. CaMLA, a collaboration between the University of Michigan and Cambridge English Language Assessment offer a suite of American English tests, including the MET (Michig...
Qualifications vary from one region or jurisdiction to the next. There are also different qualifications for those who manage or direct TESOL programsTESOL International Association (TESOL) is a professional organizationbased in the United States. In addition, TESOL International Association has more than 100 statewide and regional affiliates in...The International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL) is a professional organization based in the United Kingdom.Professional organizations for teachers of English exist at national levels. Many contain phrases in their title such as the Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT), TESOL Greece in Greece,...The National Association for Teaching English and other Community Languages to Adults (NATECLA) which focuses on teaching ESOL in the United Kingdom.
Note that some of the terms below may be restricted to one or more countries, or may be used with different meanings in different countries, particularly the US and UK. See further discussion is Terminology, and typesabove.
The teaching of English as a second language has a long history. For example, the official introduction of English into India's education system began in 1835.
English as a second language is the single most popular subject in the world, after mathematics. English is a very important language in business. Many people study English as a foreign language, because they want a better job. English is also very important in education. Many pages on the internetare in English. Many people who can not go to English language classes study on the internet, using websites like BBC Learning English. Many people study English in a country where the people speak English. This way, many students learn to listen and speakEnglish better.
There are many English exams. These English exams are important for learners. They may show how well a person can use English. It is very difficult to compare different English exams. Every exam is a little different. Read Testing English as a foreign languagefor more information.
Teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) is referred to the practice of teaching the English language to the students with different first languages. It is taught in the state school system or privately with a language school or with a tutor. TEFL can also take place in an English-speaking country for people who have immigrated there. TEFL teachers may be native or non-native speakers of English. Other forms of TEFL are TESL (Teaching English as a second language), TESOL (Teaching English to speakers of other languages), and ESL (English as a second language).
Language education – the process and practice of teaching a second or foreign language – is primarily a branch of applied linguistics, but can be an interdisciplinary field.   There are four main learning categories for language education: communicative competencies, proficiencies, cross-cultural experiences , and multiple literacies.
Language Family Branch No. of First language (L1) speakers No. of Second language (L2) speakers Total No. of speakers 1 English: Indo-European: Germanic: 369.9 million 978.2 million: 1.348 billion 2 Mandarin Chinese (incl. Standard Chinese, but excl. other varieties) Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: 921.2 million 198.7 million: 1.120 billion 3 Hindi ...
Spanish is by far the most common second language in the US, with over 50 million total speakers if non-native or second-language speakers are included. While English is the de facto national language of the country, Spanish is often used in public services and notices at the federal and state levels.
Learners of a second language may learn to avoid talking about topics for which they lack the necessary vocabulary or other language skills in the second language. Also, language learners sometimes start to try to talk about a topic, but abandon the effort in mid-utterance after discovering that they lack the language resources needed to ...
1- Create the page in the new language On the page you want to translate, change the language prefix (xxx.wikipedia.org) to your language's prefix. This will bring you to a blank page and Wikipedia will ask you if you want to edit it.