Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms in the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have ...
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development.
- Grouping Animals
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There are many different types of animals. The common animals most people know are only about 3% of the animal kingdom. When biologists look at animals, they find things that certain animals have in common. They use this to group the animals in a biological classification. They think several million species exist but they have only identified about one million. Animals can mainly be divided into two main groups: the invertebrates and the vertebrates. Vertebrates have a backbone, or spine; invertebrates do not. Vertebrates are: 1. fish(or 'fishes': both ways are correct) 2. amphibians 3. reptiles 4. birds 5. mammals Some invertebrates are: 1. insects 2. spiders 3. crustaceans 4. molluscs (like a snail or squid) 5. worms 6. jellyfish
The animal mode of nutrition is called heterotrophic because they get their food from other living organisms. Some animals eat only plants; they are called herbivores. Other animals eat only meat and are called carnivores. Animals that eat both plants and meat are called omnivores. The environments animals live in vary greatly. By the process of evolution, animals adapt to the habitats they live in. A fish is adapted to its life in water and a spider is adapted to a life catching and eating insects. A mammal living on the savannahs of East Africa lives quite a different life from a dolphin or porpoisecatching fish in the sea. The fossil record of animals goes back about 600 million years to the Ediacaran period, or somewhat earlier. During the whole of this long time, animals have been constantly evolving, so that the animals alive on Earth today are very different from those on the edges of the sea-floor in the Ediacaran. The study of ancient life is called palaeontology.
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Formed in Newcastle upon Tyne during 1962 and 1963, when Burdon joined the Alan Price Rhythm and Blues Combo, the original line-up was Eric Burdon (vocals), Alan Price (organ and keyboards), Hilton Valentine (guitar), John Steel (drums), and Bryan "Chas" Chandler (bass). They were dubbed "animals" reportedly because of their wild stage act, and the name stuck. In a 2013 interview, Eric Burdon denied this, stating it came from a gang of friends with whom they used to hang out, one of whom was...
Eric Burdon and the Animals
A group with Burdon, Jenkins, and new sidemen John Weider (guitar/violin/bass), Vic Briggs (guitar/piano), and Danny McCulloch (bass) was formed under the name Eric Burdon and Animals (or sometimes Eric Burdon and the New Animals') in December 1966, and changed direction. The hard-driving blues were transformed into Burdon's version of psychedelia as the former heavy-drinking Geordie (who later said he could never get used to Newcastle "where the rain comes at you sideways") relocated to Cali...
Reunions of the Animals
The original Animals line-up of Burdon, Price, Valentine, Chandler, and Steel reunited for a benefit concert in Newcastle in December 1968 and reformed in late 1975 to record again. Burdon later said nobody understood why they did this short reunion. They did a minitour in 1976 and shot a few videos of their new songs such as "Lonely Avenue" and "Please Send Me Someone to Love". They released the album in 1977, aptly called Before We Were So Rudely Interrupted.The album received critical prai...The Animals (1964; The Animals; US)/The Animals(1964; The Animals; UK)Animal Tracks (1965; The Animals; UK)/Animal Tracks(1965; The Animals; US)Animalisms (1966; The Animals; UK)/Animalization(1966; The Animals; US)
Current members 1. John Steel – drums (1963–1966, 1975–1976, 1983, 1992–present) 2. Mick Gallagher – keyboards (1965, 2003–present) 3. Danny Handley – guitar, vocals (2009–present) 4. Roberto Ruiz – bass, vocals (2012–present) Former members1964: Get Yourself a College Girl, "Blue Feeling", "Around and Around" aka "Round and Round" (lip-sync)1965: The Wednesday Play (Episode: Stand Up, Nigel Barton), "We Gotta Get out of This Place"1965: Pop Gear "House of the Rising Sun", "Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood" (lip-sync)1967: Stranger in the House, "Ain't that so"Burdon, Eric. I Used to Be an Animal, but I'm All Right Now. Faber and Faber, 1986. ISBN 0-571-13492-0.Kent, Jeff. The Last Poet: The Story of Eric Burdon. Witan Books, 1989. ISBN 0-9508981-2-0.Egan, Sean. Animal Tracks: Updated and Expanded: The Story of The Animals, Newcastle's Rising Sons. Askill Publishing, 2012. ISBN 978-0-9545750-4-5.Burdon, Eric (with J. Marshall Craig). Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood: A Memoir. Thunder's Mouth Press, 2001. ISBN 1-56025-330-4.The Animals in NY by Sally Kempton for the Village Voice17 September 1964The Animals interviewed on the Pop Chronicles(1969)"The Animals". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
In the English language, animals have different names depending on whether they are male, female, young, domesticated, or in groups.. The best-known source of many English words used for collective groupings of animals is The Book of Saint Albans, an essay on hunting published in 1486 and attributed to Juliana Berners.
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- Ing Pamiparakal Da at Pamanalkus
- Penibatan Ampong Fossil Record
- Deng Grupu Da Reng Animal
- Ing Kasalesayan Ning Pamanuri
- Deng Alimbawa
- Lon La Murin Deti
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Liban kareng mapilan a organismu, lalu na reng w:sponge (Phylum w:Porifera), bibilugan do reng miyayaliwang klasing tissues o kalamnan deng animal. Kayabe la kareti deng [w:muscle]], a malyaring murung at maging sangkan ning pamangimut, at ing w:nervous_system, a yang magparla at mag-process kareng sinyal. Atin muring lugal king kilub ning karelang katawan nung nu malilyari ing pamaglaso (digestionking karelang pamangan, a maki metung o adwang busbus. Metazoan ing aus da kareng animal a anti kaniti pangabalangkas, o eumetazoan naman nung magagamit ya kareng animal king pangkabilugan itang mumunang kataya (metazoan). Atin lang eukaryotic a cell deng eganaganang animal, nung nu makapadurut ing w:extracellular matrix a bibilugan ning w:collagen ampong w:glycoprotein a elastic o mayayatyat. Malyari yang sapak o katmung w:calcium iti at bumilug bageng anti reng kapsa (shell), butul, ampong spicule. Potang daragul ya pamu ing animal, metung ya iting pekabalangkas a malyaring ibaluktut (fl...
Dadalan la king metung a klasing w:sexual reproduction deng alus eganaganang animal. w:Diploid la reng mangaragul na o atyu na king ustung edad, at neng kayi, w:polyploid la reti. Deti, atin lang mapilan a reproductive cell a bukud kareng aliwa (specialized). Dadalan la reti king w:meiosis, a gagawang mas mangalating w:spermatozoa, o mas mangaragul a w:ovum. Misasanib la reti at bibilug king w:zygote, a yang panibatan da reng bayung animal. Malyari la muring dumalan king w:asexual reproduction deng dakal kareng animal. Mapalyaring king kapamilatan ning w:parthenogenesismarapat iti, nung nu mikaka ebun a malalaus agyang alang “mating” a malilyari, o neng kayi kapamilata’ning pamipitna-pitna o pamipira-pirasu. Potang mumuna, ing w:zygote magi yang anting bolang alang laman king kilub, a yawsan dang w:blastula. Manaliwa ya pangasamasan at itsura iti, at magi lang myayaliwang klasi deng kayang cell. Kareng sponge, kakawe la reng larva ning blastula papunta king metung a bayung karinan o...
Paniwalan da reng keraklan a menibat la reng animal kareng protozoa a w:flagellate o maki flagellum. Pekamalapit dong kamaganak deng w:choanoflagellate, a flagellate a maki collar o tela- kwelyu, a kawangis da reng mapilan a sponge cell. Agpang king pamanigaral king karelang DNA, kayanib la reti king metung a maragul a grupu o supergroup a awsan dang w:opisthokont, nung nu la murin kayabe deng w:fungus, at mapilan a mangalating w:protist a parasitiku. Menibat ya ing lagyu king pangabili ning w:flagellum, a atyu king dake nang gulut da reng cell a kikimut (motile cells), antimo king sperm da reng animal, e anti kareng aliwang eukaryote, nung nu ing dake rang arap ing maki flagellum. Linto la reng mumunang fossil a malyaring tang asabing kareng animal anyang bandang wakas ning panaun a en:Precambrian, anam a ralan a milyung en:600 million banwa na ing milabas. en:Vendian biota ing aus da kareti. Nanupata, e malino ing pamiugne da reti kareng fossil a linto kaybat da. Malyaring menibat...
Maranun long mikawani deng sponge (w:Porifera) kareng aliwang animal. Anti ing mebanggit na, e mayayakit karela ing komplikadung pangabalangkas a atyu kareng aliwang phylum (maragul a grupu da reng animal at aliwang organismu). Agyang miyayaliwa nong klasi (differentiated) deng cell da reti, e la pa bibilug aliwa-liwang uring kalamnan. E la mamalis lugal (sessile) deng sponge, at mamangan la kapamilatan ning “pamanyipsip” danum palub kareng busbus (w:pore} king mabilug dang katawan, a susuportan ning metung a skeleton a bibilugan da reng spicule. Malyaring kayabe ya murin kareng sponge itang w:Archaeocyathaa mewala na (extinct), o aliwa yang phylum iti. Karetang phylum a eumatozoan, adwa la reng maki radial symmetry at maki digestive chamber (karinan a pipaglasawan pamangan) a maki metung mung busbus, a yang magsilbing piluluban pamangan at pilulwalan pengan. Deni reng en:Cnidari, nung nu la kayabe deng w:anemone, w:coral, ampong en:jellyfish, at saka reng w:Ctenophora o comb jelly....
Ketang minuna nang planung Linnaeus, metung la reng animal kareng atlung kingdom. Mapipitna la reti kareng class a w:Vermes, [[insektu|Insecta], Pisces, w:Amphibia, Aves ampong Mammalia. Manibat kanita, miyanib no ngan king metung a phylum, ing w:Chordata, deng tawling apat, kabang pikawani da no man detang aliwa. Ing mebanggit king babo ing kekatamung paglalawe king grupung iti king salukuyan, dapot ating ditak a pamiyaliwa dependi nung ninu ing kutnan.
Dening makatuki ila reng mapilan kareng pekakilalang animal, a makalista lalam da reng karelang karaniwan a lagyu o common name. 1. alpaca, panas, en:antelope, badger, talibatab, osu, bee, saligubang, ayup, bison, mariposa, pusa, manuk, ipas , coral, baka, dinosaur, asu, dolphin, earthworm, elepanti, elk, asan, lango, w:fox, tugak, giraffe, kambing, gorilla, hippopotamus, kabayu, tau, iguana, jellyfish, kangaroo, leon, lupisak, llama, lynx, matsin, mouse, nightingale, octopus, kulayu, ox, loru, penguin, babi, pugu, kunehu, dagis, rhinoceros, salamander, alakdan, seahorse, pating, tupa, w:sloth, ubingan, babagwa, pusit, starfish, tigri, pau, w:urial, w:vole, balyena, lobu, yak, zebra
Template:Dichotomouskey 1. Animals Search Engine 2. Tree of Life 3. A Multimedia Database of Various UK or Endangered Species 4. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~wakefield/animals.htmlAnimals and Birds Names] - Large table of words: animal, collective, male, female, young, & home 1. [http://www273.pair.com/med/words/animal_adjectives.htmEnglish Animal Adjectives] 1. [http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/animals/animals.htmlSounds of the World's Animals] - animal sounds in many languages 1. FindSounds - Search the Web for Sounds- sound files including animal sound files 1. AnimalReviews- animals reviewed and evaluated 2. The animal photo archive- Photos of animals 3. [http://www.wildlife-photo.orgPhoto gallery of animals pictures from the entire world.] 1. [http://www.wildlife-photo.org/birds_list.htmBirds Name Check List in Latin, English, Russian and Hebrew.]
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The poorly-run Manor Farm near Willingdon, England, is ripened for rebellion from its animal populace by neglect at the hands of the irresponsible and alcoholic farmer, Mr. Jones. One night, the exalted boar, Old Major, holds a conference, at which he calls for the overthrow of humans and teaches the animals a revolutionary song called "Beasts of England". When Old Major dies, two young pigs, Snowball and Napoleon, assume command and stage a revolt, driving Mr. Jones off the farm and renaming the property "Animal Farm". They adopt the Seven Commandments of Animalism, the most important of which is, "All animals are equal". The decree is painted in large letters on one side of the barn. Snowball teaches the animals to read and write, while Napoleon educates young puppies on the principles of Animalism. To commemorate the start of Animal Farm, Snowball raises a green flag with a white hoof and horn. Food is plentiful, and the farm runs smoothly. The pigs elevate themselves to position...
1. Old Major – An aged prize Middle White boar provides the inspiration that fuels the rebellion. He is also called Willingdon Beauty when showing. He is an allegorical combination of Karl Marx, one of the creators of communism, and Vladimir Lenin, the communist leader of the Russian Revolution and the early Soviet nation, in that he draws up the principles of the revolution. His skull being put on revered public display recalls Lenin, whose embalmed body was left in indefinite repose.By the...
1. Mr. Jones – A heavy drinker who is the original owner of Manor Farm, a farm in disrepair with farmhands who often loaf on the job. He is an allegory of Russian Tsar Nicholas II, who abdicated following the February Revolution of 1917 and was murdered, along with the rest of his family, by the Bolshevikson 17 July 1918. The animals revolt after Jones drinks so much he does not care for them. 2. Mr. Frederick – The tough owner of Pinchfield Farm, a small but well-kept neighbouring farm, who...
1. Boxer – A loyal, kind, dedicated, extremely strong, hard-working, and respectable cart-horse, although quite naive and gullible. Boxer does a large share of the physical labour on the farm. He is shown to hold the belief that "Napoleon is always right." At one point, he had challenged Squealer's statement that Snowball was always against the welfare of the farm, earning him an attack from Napoleon's dogs. But Boxer's immense strength repels the attack, worrying the pigs that their authorit...
George Orwell's Animal Farm is an example of a political satire that was intended to have a "wider application," according to Orwell himself, in terms of its relevance. Stylistically, the work shares many similarities with some of Orwell's other works, most notably 1984, as both have been considered works of Swiftian Satire. Furthermore, these two prominent works seem to suggest Orwell's bleak view of the future for humanity; he seems to stress the potential/current threat of dystopias similar to those in Animal Farm and 1984. In these kinds of works, Orwell distinctly references the disarray and traumatic conditions of Europe following the Second World War. Orwell's style and writing philosophy as a whole were very concerned with the pursuit of truth in writing. Orwell was committed to communicating in a way that was straightforward, given the way that he felt words were commonly used in politics to deceive and confuse. For this reason, he is careful, in Animal Farm, to make sure t...
Origin and writing
George Orwell wrote the manuscript between November 1943 and February 1944 after his experiences during the Spanish Civil War, which he described in Homage to Catalonia (1938). In the preface of a 1947 Ukrainian edition of Animal Farm, he explained how escaping the communist purges in Spain taught him "how easily totalitarian propaganda can control the opinion of enlightened people in democratic countries." This motivated Orwell to expose and strongly condemn what he saw as the Stalinist corr...
Orwell initially encountered difficulty getting the manuscript published, largely due to fears that the book might upset the alliance between Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Four publishers refused to publish Animal Farm, yet one had initially accepted the work, but declined it after consulting the Ministry of Information.[d] Eventually, Secker and Warburgpublished the first edition in 1945. During the Second World War, it became clear to Orwell that anti-Soviet literature w...
Orwell originally wrote a preface complaining about British self-censorshipand how the British people were suppressing criticism of the USSR, their World War II ally: Although the first edition allowed space for the preface, it was not included,and as of June 2009 most editions of the book have not included it. Secker and Warburg published the first edition of Animal Farmin 1945 without an introduction. However, the publisher had provided space for a preface in the author's proof composited f...
Contemporary reviews of the work were not universally positive. Writing in the American New Republicmagazine, George Soule expressed his disappointment in the book, writing that it "puzzled and saddened me. It seemed on the whole dull. The allegory turned out to be a creaking machine for saying in a clumsy way things that have been said better directly." Soule believed that the animals were not consistent enough with their real-world inspirations, and said, "It seems to me that the failure of this book (commercially it is already assured of tremendous success) arises from the fact that the satire deals not with something the author has experienced, but rather with stereotyped ideas about a country which he probably does not know very well". The Guardian on 24 August 1945 called Animal Farm "a delightfully humorous and caustic satire on the rule of the many by the few". Tosco Fyvel, writing in Tribune on the same day, called the book "a gentle satire on a certain State and on the ill...
The pigs Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer adapt Old Major's ideas into "a complete system of thought", which they formally name Animalism, an allegoric reference to Communism, not to be confused with the philosophy Animalism. Soon after, Napoleon and Squealer partake in activities associated with the humans (drinking alcohol, sleeping in beds, trading), which were explicitly prohibited by the Seven Commandments. Squealer is employed to alter the Seven Commandments to account for this humanisa...
Significance and allegory
Orwell biographer Jeffrey Meyers has written, "virtually every detail has political significance in this allegory." Orwell himself wrote in 1946, "Of course I intended it primarily as a satire on the Russian revolution... [and] that kind of revolution (violent conspiratorial revolution, led by unconsciously power-hungry people) can only lead to a change of masters [-] revolutions only effect a radical improvement when the masses are alert."In a preface for a 1947 Ukrainian edition, he stated,...
In 2021, the National Youth Theatretoured a stage version of Animal Farm. A solo version, adapted and performed by Guy Masterson, premièred at the Traverse TheatreEdinburgh in January 1995 and has toured worldwide since. A theatrical version, with music by Richard Peaslee and lyrics by Adrian Mitchell, was staged at the National Theatre London on 25 April 1984, directed by Peter Hall. It toured nine cities in 1985.
Animal Farmhas been adapted to film twice. Both differ from the novel and have been accused of taking significant liberties, including sanitising some aspects. 1. Animal Farm (1954) is an animated film, in which Napoleon is eventually overthrown in a second revolution. In 1974, E. Howard Hunt revealed that he had been sent by the CIA's Psychological Warfaredepartment to obtain the film rights from Orwell's widow, and the resulting 1954 animation was funded by the agency. 2. Animal Farm(1999)...
A BBC radio version, produced by Rayner Heppenstall, was broadcast in January 1947. Orwell listened to the production at his home in Canonbury Square, London, with Hugh Gordon Porteous, amongst others. Orwell later wrote to Heppenstall that Porteous, "who had not read the book, grasped what was happening after a few minutes." A further radio production, again using Orwell's own dramatisation of the book, was broadcast in January 2013 on BBC Radio 4. Tamsin Greig narrated, and the cast include...Bott, George (1968) . Selected Writings. London, Melbourne, Toronto, Singapore, Johannesburg, Hong Kong, Nairobi, Auckland, Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books. ISBN 978-0-435-13675-8.Menchhofer, Robert W. (1990). Animal Farm. Lorenz Educational Press. ISBN 978-0787780616.O'Neill, Terry, Readings on Animal Farm (1998), Greenhaven Press. ISBN 1565106512.
- George Orwell
- Political satire
- 112 (UK paperback edition)
- Sortable Table
At least 21 phyla are exclusively aquatic, with several others in quasi-aquatic habitats on land. None are entirely terrestrial. This is testimony to the importance of water for life, and to the sea in particular. It is fairly certain that all phyla originated in the sea or, at any rate, in water. Most made their first showing in the Cambrian, or in the Ediacaran. Most of the soft-bodied phyla have left few fossils. Phyla may be grouped according to evidence about their evolutionary relationships. The list above puts similar groups together. This kind of megataxonomy is becoming more convincing as DNA sequence analysis proceeds through the phyla. Some entirely fossil groups are still placed where they are on anatomy and commonsense rather than hard molecular evidence. The trilobites are a good example. Their position in the Arthropoda is based on not much more than their bilateral symmetryand an exoskeleton. These groupings are discussed further in the references to this page.
This table has the advantage of being sortable. The terminology differs in places from the above descriptions. Also, by listing living species only for most phyla, those with huge fossil records (like Bryozoa and Brachiopods) are lower in the order despite being important aquatic forms in the Palaeozoic era.
Ruppert, Edward E; Fox, Richard Barnes, Robert D. 2003. Invertebrate zoology: a functional evolutionary approach. Revision of Barnes' standard textbook. 1008 pages. ISBN 978-8131501047
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The words animal testing, animal experimentation, animal research, in vitro testing, and vivisection have similar meanings,differently. "tatiosion" means to "cut up" a living animal. It was used only in experiments that dissected live animals. The word "vivisection" is sometimes used negatively about any experiment with live animals. For example, the Encyclopædia Britannica described "vivisection" as: "Operation on a living animal for experimental rather than healing purposes; more broadly, all experimentation on live animals". However, dictionaries note that the wider definition is "used only by people who are opposed (dislike) to such work". The word makes people think of torture, pain, and death.People who dislike animal testing often use the word "vivisection", while scientists usually use the expression "animal experimentation" instead.
The earliest mention of animal testing is in the writings of the Greeks in the second and fourth centuries BCE. Aristotle (Αριστοτέλης) (384 – 322 BCE) and Erasistratus (304 – 258 BCE) where some of the first people to try out experiments on living animals. Galen, a doctor in second-century Rome who was known as the "father of vivisection", dissected pigs and goats. Avenzoar, an Arabic doctor in twelfth-century Spain, tested out surgicalprocesses on animals before applying them to humans. Animals have often been used in the history of scientific study. In the 1880s, Louis Pasteur showed the germ theory of medicine by putting anthrax in sheep. In the 1890s, Ivan Pavlov famously used dogs to describe classical conditioning. On November 3, 1957, a Russian dog, Laika, became the first animal to orbit the earth. In the 1970s, antibiotic treatments and vaccines for leprosy were made using armadillos, then given to humans. In 1974, Rudolf Jaenisch produced the first genetically changed mam...Conn, P. Michael and Parker, James V (2008). The Animal Research War, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-230-60014-0Guerrini, Anita (2003). Experimenting with humans and animals: from Galen to animal rights. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-7197-2."Experiments in the Revival of Organisms : Techfilm Studio, Moscow : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". archive.org. Retrieved 29 June 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)"House of Lords - Animals In Scientific Procedures - Report". publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 29 June 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)""Why use animals?"". ncabr.org. Retrieved 29 June 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)"lpag - biomed for the layperson". lpag.org. Archived from the original on 13 October 2006. Retrieved 29 June 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)