- Origin of the name
- Coat of arms
- Piast rulers
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland. The first documented Polish monarch was Duke Mieszko I. The Piasts' royal rule in Poland ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir III the Great. Branches of the Piast dynasty continued to rule in the Duchy of Masovia and in the Duchies of Silesia until the last male Silesian Piast died in 1675. The Piasts intermarried with several noble lines of Europe, and possessed numerous titles, some within the Holy Roman Empire. The J
The early dukes and kings of Poland are said to have regarded themselves as descendants of the semi-legendary Piast the Wheelwright, first mentioned in the Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum, written c. 1113 by Gallus Anonymus. However, the term "Piast Dynasty" was not applied until the 17th century. In a historical work the expression Piast dynasty was introduced by the Polish historian Adam Naruszewicz, it is not documented in contemporary sources.
The first "Piasts", probably of Polan descent, appeared around 940 in the territory of Greater Poland at the stronghold of Giecz. Shortly afterwards they relocated their residence to Gniezno, where Prince Mieszko I ruled over the Civitas Schinesghe from about 960. The name Polani, from Slavic: pole, did not appear until 1015. The Piasts temporarily also ruled over Pomerania, Bohemia and the Lusatias, as well as Ruthenia, and the Hungarian Spiš region in present-day Slovakia. The ruler bore ...
About 1295, Przemysł II used a coat of arms with a white eagle – a symbol later referred to as the Piast coat of arms or as the Piast Eagle. The Silesian Piasts in the 14th century used an eagle modified by a crescent, which became the coat of arms of the Duchy of Silesia.
Piast kings and rulers of Poland appear in list form in the following table. For a list of all rulers, see List of Polish monarchs.
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This could hint at Piast's initial position as a majordomo, or a "steward of the house", in the court of another ruler, and the subsequent takeover of power by Piast. This would parallel the development of the early medieval Frankish dynasties, when the Mayors of the Palace of the Merovingian kings gradually usurped political control.
- Early history
- Struggle for the Polish Crown
- Fragmentation and turn to Bohemia
- Vassals of Bohemia and decline
- Silesian Piasts and Poland
The Silesian Piasts were the elder of four lines of the Polish Piast dynasty beginning with Władysław II the Exile, eldest son of Duke Bolesław III of Poland. By Bolesław's testament, Władysław was granted Silesia as his hereditary province and also the Lesser Polish Seniorate Province at Kraków according to the principle of agnatic seniority.
The history of the Silesian Piasts began with the feudal fragmentation of Poland in 1138 following the death of the Polish duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. While the Silesian province and the Kraków seniorate were assigned to Władysław II the Exile, his three younger half–brothers Bolesław IV the Curly, Mieszko III the Old, and Henry of Sandomierz received Masovia, Greater Poland and Sandomierz, respectively, according to the Testament of Boleslaw III. Władysław soon entered into fierce ...
Henry I the Bearded actively took part in the inner-Polish conflicts and expanded his dominion with determination. Henry, before securing in 1229 the sovereignty in Kraków, had made no less persevering efforts to bring Greater Poland also under his dominion. From the beginning of the thirteenth century he had not ceased to intervene in the disputes which were carried on between the descendants of Mieszko the Old. At last in 1234, a good half of that province was formally ceded to him. As a ...
After Henry's death in 1241 his brother Bolesław II ruled on behalf of his underage brothers. Since all male members of the family were eligible to rule, a principle critical for the coming years, a hereditary division was put into practice in 1248/51. Bolesław established the duchy of Legnica, Konrad I Glogow, Henry III kept Wroclaw together with Ladislaus, who would become archbishop of Salzburg. Soon the next generation divided the territory again. Jawor and Lwówek Śląski split off ...
As Przemysł II united Poland, the weak and divided Silesian dukes needed a strong partner who could provide cover. They now separated from the Polish state and subjected to the Bohemian crown. After the death of Wenceslaus III, king of Bohemia and Poland, the right to the Polish crown was disputed, being claimed by various Piast dukes as well as the successors of Wenceslaus III on the Bohemian throne. In 1327, John of Bohemia invaded Poland in order to gain the Polish crown. After the ...
The Silesian Piasts formed the oldest branch of the first Polish royal dynasty. This was the reason that even after the fragmentation of Poland their interest in the Polish matters was still strong. Norman Davies stated that the dynastic loyalty of all Piast dukes as well as a single ecclesiastic organisation still secured the unity of the divided Kingdom of Poland. In his opinion the alleged "will" to separate from Poland is contradicted by the continuous involvement of the Silesian Piasts in P
- Notable Members
The Luxembourg line was initially a cadet branch of the Lotharingian ducal House of Limburg–Arlon, who were in turn a branch of the Luxembourg branch of the so-called House of Ardenne. In 1247 Henry, younger son of Duke Waleran III of Limburg inherited the County of Luxembourg upon the death of his mother Countess Ermesinde, a scion of the House of Namur. Her father, Count Henry IV of Luxembourg, was related on his mother's side to the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty (also called the elder House of Luxembourg),which had ruled the county since the late 10th century. Count Henry V's grandson Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg upon the death of his father Henry VI at the 1288 Battle of Worringen, was elected Rex Romanorum in 1308. The election was necessary after the Habsburg king Albert I of Germany had been murdered, and Henry, backed by his brother Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, prevailed against Charles, Count of Valois. Henry arranged the marriage of his son John with t...Henry VII (1275–1313) – elected king of Germany in 1308 in succession to the assassinated Albert I, crowned emperor in 1312. He was succeeded by Louis IV from the House of Wittelsbach.John the Blind (1296–1346) – only son of Henry. He was enfeoffed with Bohemia by his father in 1310, married the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia and deposed the Bohemian king Henry the Carin...Wenceslaus (1361–1419) – eldest surviving son of Charles. As margrave of Brandenburgfrom 1373 to 1378, he was elected king of Germany in 1376 and succeeded his father as king of Bohemia in 1378. De...
House of Limburg–Arlon
Having succeeded to the county of Luxemburg, the younger branch of the House of Limburg-Arlon is the family that succeeded in getting one of its scions elected Holy Roman Emperor. From there descended the Kings of Bohemia, several other Emperors and a King of Hungary as shown below.
Early Luxembourg counts
The House of Luxemburg stemmed from the House of Ardenne (or Ardennes, French Maison d'Ardenne) which was an important medieval noble family from Lotharingia, known from at least the tenth century. They had several important branches, descended from several brothers: 1. The House of Ardenne-Luxembourg, including the counts of Luxembourg, descended from Count Sigfried of Luxembourg 2. The House of Ardenne-Verdun, with several dukes of Lower Lotharingia, descended from Count Gozlin of Bidgau 3....
Geni Project: House of Piast. Wikipedia: Piast_dynasty EuWeb: 1 The Piast family1 2 The Piast family2. People Projects Discussions ...
- Origin of The Name
- History of The Dynasty
- See Also
Although the early dukes and kings of Poland regarded themselves as descendants of Piast, the term "Piast Dynasty" originated in the 17th century: historians working for a number of rulers who governed duchies in Silesia invented the concept. In a historical book the term was first used by Adam Naruszewicz in his History of the Polish Nation(1780–86).
Piast Kołodziej (Piast the Wheelwright) was the legendary founder of the Piast dynasty. His name is first mentioned in the Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum of Gallus Anonymus, written c. 1113. The last Silesian Piast George William of Liegnitz-Brieg-Wohlau (Brzeg and Legnica) died in 1675, although numerous families link their genealogy to the Piasts. His son August Freiherr von Liegnitz (1628) and Graf von Liegnitz (1664), the last legitimate male, died in 1679 and the last male through illegitimate line Ferdinand II Freiherr von und zu Hohenstein of the Dukes of Teschen died in 1706. Another illegitimate branch, the Grafen von Karlinsmarck zu Friedland und Strehlitz, born of Bernhard of Silesia-Oppeln, duke of Falkenberg, by a lady Karlinska of Karlowice, died out at the beginning of the 19th century in a French family. About 1295 Przemysł II used as a coat of arms a white eagle – a symbol later referred to as the Piast coat of arms (see depiction) or as the Piast...
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Marriage and Issue Around 1341, Louis married with Agnes (b. ca. 1321 - d. 7 July 1362), daughter of Henry IV, Duke of Głogów-Żagań and widow of Leszek, Duke o...
The House of Savoy (Italian: Casa Savoia) is a royal dynasty that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small Alpine county north-west of Italy to absolute rule of the Kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720, when they were handed the island of Sardinia, over which they would exercise direct rule from then onward.