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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Juris_DoctorJuris Doctor - Wikipedia

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Juris Doctor degree ( J.D. or JD ), also known as Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence ( J.D., JD, D.Jur., or DJur ), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. Although a graduate degree, the J.D. is the standard degree obtained to practice law in the ...

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    What can you do with a Juris Doctor?

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    Is Juris Doctor the same as a PhD?

  3. Juris Doctor Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre. No sistema de alguns desses países, pode ser compreendido como o primeiro grau profissional, entendido como equivalente ao bacharelado (p. ex. em alguns países existe ainda o "bachelor of laws", caso da Inglaterra ou da África do Sul), [ 7 ] [ 8 ] em outros países, é considerado como uma espécie de pós-graduação [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 11 ] em Direito.

    • External Links Modified
    • Juris Doctorem
    • "Executive Juris Doctor"

    Hello fellow Wikipedians, I have just modified 17 external links on Juris Doctor. Please take a moment to review my edit. If you have any questions, or need the bot to ignore the links, or the page altogether, please visit this simple FaQfor additional information. I made the following changes: 1. Added archive https://web.archive.org/web/20141014080058/http://collegewing.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/LLB-to-JD-for-school-website.pdf to http://collegewing.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/LLB-to-JD-for-school-website.pdf 2. Added archive https://web.archive.org/web/20120528135712/https://www.law.utoronto.ca/prosp_stdn_content.asp?itemPath=3%2F6%2F15%2F6%2F0&contentId=983 to http://www.law.utoronto.ca/prosp_stdn_content.asp?itemPath=3%2F6%2F15%2F6%2F0&contentId=983 3. Added archive https://web.archive.org/web/20161213104206/http://www.aqf.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/aqf-qualification-titles-pdf-2b3-1b.pdf to http://www.aqf.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/AQF-qualification-title...

    User Law School Prof has added Juris Doctorem as an alternative name for the J.D., with the claim in the edit summary that this is used at Georgetown University. A Google site search on georgetown.edu for the text "juris doctorem" returns no results, while there is plenty of material there using "Juris Doctor". It should also be noted that Juris Doctorem is the Latin accusative of Juris Doctor, which is therefore used on some degree parchments - this is not a separate title from Juris Doctor, merely the form Juris Doctor takes when it is the subject of a sentence in Latin. I suspect this is the cause of Law School Prof's confusion. My revert on this edit was re-reverted without explanation; to avoid edit-warring I have therefore tagged it as needing a citation and opened this discussion. Robminchin (talk) 04:49, 29 August 2017 (UTC)[] I added Juris Doctorem as that is what is actually listed on the diploma. I contacted the Georgetown University Law School Registrar, the office respo...

    So Buzzfeed (which despite the stupid name is now a legit and reasonably reliable news organ) has this article about something called the Executive Juris Doctor degree I don't know if it's important enough to include in this already dense and long article, so I didn't, but on the other hand probably some none-zero number of people are going to search on "Executive Juris Doctor" which is a redirect to "Juris Doctor#Executive Juris Doctor", which section doesn't exist, so they are just dumped at the top of this article, which contains no info at on Executive Juris Doctor. So maybe we ought to ad a section something like this, probably in the "Types and characteristics" subsection: 1. 1.1. ====Executive Juris Doctor==== 1.2. Some for-profit schools in the United States offer a legal education program resulting in an Executive Juris Doctor(EJD) degree. Despite the similarity in name to Juris Doctor (which is sometimes the source of confusion), this degree is not generally recognized in...

    • Argentina
    • Brazil
    • Canada
    • Czech Republic and Slovakia
    • European and Commonwealth Usage
    • Finland
    • France
    • Germany
    • Italy
    • Malta

    In Argentina the Doctor of Laws or Doctor of Juridical Sciences is the highest academic qualification in the field of Jurisprudence. To obtain the doctoral degree the applicant must have previously achieved, at least the undergraduate degree of Attorney.(Título de Abogado). The doctorates in Jurisprudence in Argentina might have different denominations as is described as follow: 1. Doctorate in Law (Offered by the University of Buenos Aires, NU of the L, and NU of R) 2. Doctorate in Criminal Law 3. Doctorate in Criminal Law and Criminal Sciences 4. Doctorate in Juridical Sciences 5. Doctorate in Juridical and Social Sciences (Offered by the NU of C) 6. Doctorate in Private Law (Offered by the NU of T) 7. Doctorate in Public Law and Government Economics (Offered by the NU of T)

    In Brazil, the Doctor of Laws degree, known in Portuguese as Doutor em Direito or Doutor em Ciências Jurídicas, is the highest academic degree in law available. In a few universities there is a higher title known as livre docência, like the habilitation in some European countries. However, this higher title is not a degree in the strict sense, because livre docêncianowadays is an internal title, that applies solely within the institution granting it. In the past, livre docência was a degree in the fullness of the term, and a professor bearing the title would enjoy the privileges of livre docência if he transferred from one institution to another; there are still living professors who hold the "old" livre docênciadegrees; but all new titles of that name only confer privileges within the institution granting it. The doctoral degree is awarded upon the completion and the successful defense of a thesis prepared by the doctoral candidate under the supervision of a tutor. The thesis must...

    In Canada, there are several academic law-related doctorates: the Doctor of Laws (LL.D.); Doctor of Juridical Science or Doctor of Legal Science (J.S.D./S.J.D); Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.); and the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.).The Doctor of Jurisprudence (Juris Doctor or J.D.) is the professional doctorate degree that is usually required for admissions to post-graduate studies in law. The first law degree was known until recently as the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.). However, since law schools in Canada generally insist on a prior degree or some equivalent in order to grant admission, it was a more advanced degree than the LL.B. degrees awarded by programs abroad, which would accept high school graduates. The majority of Canadian universities now grant the Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree rather than the LL.B.; the University of Saskatchewanreplaced its LL.B. with a J.D. in 2010, because the Canadian LL.B. is equivalent to the J.D. All Canadian J.D. programs are three years, and all (except t...

    In the Czech Republic and Slovakiathe Doctor is a postgraduate degree in two types – as a professional degree in law (JUDr) and a research doctorate (PhD). JUDr (Juris Utriusque Doctor - Doctor of Both Laws i.e. Civil and Church) is a degree with a tradition of several centuries, originally the highest possible degree. Nowadays, its scholar importancy is quite limited, but it serves as a traditional and popular badge degree, especially useful for attorneys. In older times with no master's degree, JUDr. served as the only law degree (and was roughly equivalent to the today's master's degree, plus a special exam). Requirements for obtaining a JUDr degree are a highly rated Master (Mgr.) degree in law, the compilation of a thesis (including successful defense) and passing an oral exam called Rigorosum. The thesis itself is also sometimes called Rigorosum. Many JUDr. theses are based on the students previous Master theses; however, nowadays universities require that the dissertation wor...

    In the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and Europe, the degree is a higher doctorate usually awarded on the basis of exceptionally insightful and distinctive publications that contain significant and original contributions to the study of law. Some universities, such as the University of Oxford, award a Doctor of Civil Law degree instead. In South Africa the LL.D. is awarded based upon research and completion of a dissertation; the LL.D. may also be awarded as an honorary degree based upon contributions to society; see below.

    In Finland, the Doctor of Laws (Finnish: Oikeustieteen tohtori, OTT) (Swedish: Juris doktor, JD) is the highest academic degree in law, based on 60 credits of course studies and, most importantly, successful completion of a doctoral dissertation. The dissertation usually takes the form of a monographat least of 250 pages in length, or of a series of published articles. A successful oral disputation is also required. It usually takes at least four years to complete the degree. The degree of the Doctor of Laws does not qualify its holder for judicial offices. Instead, the degree of the Master of Laws (Finnish: Oikeustieteen maisteri) (Swedish: Juris magister) is the requirement for the membership of the Finnish Bar Associationand for judicial offices. As the doctoral programs for the doctoral degree are, in principle, open for the holders of all master's degrees, the possession of the degree of the Doctor of Laws is not a guarantee for the possession of the Master of Laws -degree. How...

    In France, the Doctor of Law degree (doctorat en droit) is a PhD. The PhD in law is required to teach at the university level as a maître de conférences (lecturer). To become Professor of Law, holders of a PhD in law have yet to pass an additional competitive exam: the agrégation de droit. Only the first year (master 1) of the master's degreein law is necessary to pass the bar exam.

    The Doctor of Laws (Doktor der Rechte) is the terminal degree in law, abbreviated as Dr. iur. (Doctor iuris) or Dr. jur. (Doctor juris). The terminology varies: while most universities refer to the degree as Doctor of Laws (Doktor der Rechte (pl.), e.g. Munich, Münster, Berlin (HU), Cologne, Tübingen, Göttingen), some others refer to it either as Doctor of Jurisprudence (Doktor der Rechtswissenschaft, e.g. Heidelberg, Hamburg) or Doctor of Law (Doktor des Rechts (sg.), e.g. Berlin (FU)). It is conferred based on a thesis consisting of a suitable body of original academic research, and an oral examination (Rigorosum or Disputation). The thesis must have been published as a book or – less common – as a series of articles in a peer reviewed law journal before the degree can be formally conferred. Admission usually requires the grade of "Fully Satisfactory" (approximately top quintile of class) in the student's first Staatsexamen (the Master's level first professional degree). Having su...

    In Italy, the title of "Magister Doctor of Law" (Dottore magistrale in Giurisprudenza) is the title given to students who complete the five-year Laurea magistraledegree. Despite the adoption of the Bologna process, in Italy law remains a field that retains the traditional Italian system. Once a prospective lawyer has been awarded the Magister Doctor of Law and worked 18 months as a trainee lawyer, he or she is required to pass a state bar examination in order to be licensed to practice as an attorney at law (Avvocato). Previously, dottore in giurisprudenzawas the title given to the students that completed the old (four-year) course of studies in law.After the five-year degree, it is possible to enroll in a Ph.D. course in a specific field of law ("Dottorato"), and the title obtained is "Dottore di ricerca" (Ph.D.).

    In Malta, the European Union's smallest member state, the LL.D. was a doctorate-level academic degree in law requiring at least three years of post-graduate full-time study at the University of Malta, Malta's national university. At least three years of previous law study were required for entry. Students were required to complete coursework in a number of core areas of law, as well as to submit a thesis which is to be "an original work on the approved subject or other contribution to the knowledge showing that he/she has carried out sufficient research therein". It confers the title of Doctor, which in Malta is used to address a holder of the degree. Up until 2014, the LL.D. was one of the requirements for admission to the profession of advocatein Malta (an advocate, as opposed to a legal procurator, has rights of representation in superior courts). Practising lawyers are of three designations – notary, legal procurator and advocate. The Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree is an underg...

    • Aba Law School Approval Standards
    • Proposal For Restructuring Around What A J.D. Represents
    • Terminal, Professional, Research Doctorate Revisited
    • What Is "New Knowledge"?
    • Proposal
    • Ignoring External Sources
    • Mediation Wp:Medcab
    • Informal Opinion 1973-3

    Here is a link for the ABA law school approval standards, I think some of the stuff in this article might misrepresent them. . Peyna11:24, 25 May 2006 (UTC) Four factual errors: The AAALS does not requires a bachelor's degree for admission to law school.There are many good, legitimate universities that are not regionally accredited; Rockefeller University is perhaps the best example.There are no law schools that require a JSD/SJD for tenure.A JSD/SJD is not even remotely comparable to a British higher doctorate.

    This entire article focuses way too much on boring, petty technicalities and not enough on what people actually doto get a Juris Doctor (that is, the requirements to earn the degree). For example, there is no mention that the first year curriculum is relatively standardized (semester-long courses in Contracts, Torts, Constitutional Law, Criminal Law, and Property and a year-long course in Lawyering Skills/Legal Research & Writing), or that there is a upper-division writing requirement, or that Professional Responsibility is required, etc. There is too much focus on procedure over substance. I would think that most people interested in reading about the Juris Doctor would want to know WHAT kind of academic coursework it actually represents. Also, length of time to get the degree is discussed in two separate places in the article, which makes no sense. That needs to be consolidated. Do we have consensus that these aspects need to be fixed? --Coolcaesar08:01, 5 August 2006 (UTC) 1. I c...

    I am left unconvinced as to the status of the JD. I understand the arguments with respect to the status of the JD to be as follows (where ' indicates the counterargument, as I understand it): 1. The JD is a (terminal) doctoral degree because it is the highest degree in its field. 1'. Other degrees are higher than the JD inasmuch as the JD is a prerequisite for those degrees. 2. The JD is a doctoral degree because it enables the recipient to conduct research. 2'. Preparing one to conduct research does not qualify a degree as "doctoral" (i.e. anyone who can read can conduct research). Rather, doctoral degrees typically prepare one to generate *new and significant* knowledge to a field. 3. The JD is a (professional) doctoral degree because it is the highest degree required for the practice of law. 3'. It is also the lowest degree required for the practice of law because it is the only degree required for the practice of law. 4. The JD is a doctoral degree because the ABA says it is a d...

    For purposes of this article, what exactly is "new knowledge"? I have seen a distinction made at various times between research by a Ph.D. that generates "new knowledge" and research by a J.D. in connection with the law, which presumably somehow does not generate "new knowledge." What exactly is the distinction? Any thoughts, anyone? Yours, Famspear20:11, 10 August 2006 (UTC) Post-script: I want to point out that my query above is a trick question. Let me give an example with a typical set of real life legal questions that are timely as subjects of legal research (names and dates changed for confidentiality, of course). 1. 1.1. Hypothetical #1: XYZ Corporation was created under the laws of the State of Texas, operating entirely inside the State of Texas. XYZ Corporation uses December 31st as its year end for all federal and state tax purposes. Under Texas law, a corporation's Texas corporate franchise tax report for, say, the accounting year 2002 (which would be report year 2003) is...

    Since there seems to be a number of people on both sides of the argument regarding whether the JD is a doctorate; I propose we submit this issue to an RfC. The reason being, that because any of the arguments being advanced for/against the JD apply equally to all professional doctorates (JD/MD/DDS, etc., see Doctorate for a complete list). This resolution issue has the potential to impact 20+ articles if not more, so we really need to bring in other people to the discussion and try to arrive at some consensus. Peyna17:12, 13 August 2006 (UTC) 1. RfC created: Wikipedia:Requests for comment/Maths, science, and technology#Miscellaneous. Peyna17:18, 13 August 2006 (UTC) Via RfC: 1. Occasionally, traditional degrees are replaced by newer ones. During the 1960s, for example, most American law schools replaced the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) with the Juris Doctor (J.D.), even though the actual requirements for the law degree remained substantially the same. "Degree, Academic", The Columbia Enc...

    69.208.124.146 has repeatedly reintroduced wording to the effect that the J.D. is a doctoral-level degree. Peyna requested an RfC. The consensus appeared to be that evidence support the contention that the J.D. is not a doctoral-level degree. 69.208.124.146 invoked the U.S. Department of Education and reintroduced the doctoral-level wording. I have provided the link to and quotation from the U.S. DOE that unequivocally states that the J.D. is *not* a doctoral-level degree and, in fact, may not even be considered a graduate level degree. I incorporated this citation and made appropriate changes to the article. 69.208.124.146 has *again* introduced the doctoral-level wording. I'd appreciate others commenting on what appears to me to be a complete disregard for NPOV. Wikiant14:57, 21 August 2006 (UTC) The DOE does not support the contention that the JD is not a doctoral-level degree. The DOE includes the JD with other first professional degrees, some of which are professional doctorate...

    I have volunteered to take this case. If there are any problems with this, please let me know. Jon Cates (talk · contribs)

    I reverted the previous edit for the following reason. The editor made the comment that the ABA has deemed it ethical for lawyers to use the title "doctor." If you look at www.sfbar.org/ethics/opinion_1973-7.aspx, you'll see that the ABA deemed it ethical for a lawyer who holds a doctorate *in addition to the J.D.* to use the title (the example given is a lawyer who is also a practicing dentist). I have not yet found corroborating evidence to the position that one who holds the J.D. alone can use the title. Wikiant12:17, 6 September 2006 (UTC) 1. I'd take "esquire" over "doctor" any day. =] Peyna12:45, 6 September 2006 (UTC) 2. For what it's worth, and I don't think you offered this for the purpose of demonstrating that the JD is not a doctorate anyway, but the main reason the use of "doctor" is/was prohibitted is because it might mislead potential clients into thinking either (1) you're more qualified than an attorney holding an L.L.B., or (2) you're a specialist in another field....

  4. 至 1962 年法律博士(Juris Doctor)学位在美国中西部之外几乎绝迹 。 但是,到1960年代,大多数法学院学生都已先取得大学学位 。到 1960 年代末,几乎所有法学院都要求学生必须取得大学学位 。因此,从 1960 年代开始,法学院开始再次逐渐以法律博士(Juris Doctor ...

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