Born on 5 March 1326, Louis was the third son of Charles I of Hungary and his wife, Elizabeth of Poland. He was named for his father's uncle, Louis, Bishop of Toulouse, canonized in 1317. The first-born son of his parents, Charles, died before Louis was born. Louis became his father's heir after the death of his brother Ladislaus in 1329.
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- Economic and Legislative Activity
- Domestic, Military and Religious Policy
- Wars and Campaigns
- Inheritance of Poland and Death
- Peace in Hungary in A Turbulent Europe
Louis was the third son of Charles I of Hungary and Elizabeth of Poland, the daughter of Władysław I the Elbow-high and sister to Casimir III of Poland. In 1342, Louis married his first wife, Margaret (1335 – 1349), underage daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, who died while still a minor. He then married his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Stephen II of Bosnia (who became Louis's vassal) and Elizabeth of Kuyavia. Her maternal grandfather was Polish Casimir II of Kuyavia, son of Ziemomysł of Kuyaviaand Salome of Eastern Pomerania. Louis had four daughters by his second wife, three of which survived infancy: 1. Catherine(1370 – 1378) 2. Mary, his successor in Hungary, who married Sigismund, at that time Margrave of Brandenburg (1371 – 1395), who became King of Hungary(1387–1437) and Holy Roman Emperor (1433–1437). 3. Hedwig, his successor as King of Poland (1384-1399), married Jogaila, then Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Louis, named for his great uncle, Saint Louis of Toulouse.Louis acquired the seven liberal arts (grammar, rhetoric, logic, geometry, arithmetic, music, astronomy).When he was sixteen, Louis understood Latin, German and Italian as well as his mother tongue. He owed his excellent education to the care of his mother, a woman of profound political sagacity, who was his chief counsellor in diplomatic affairs during the greater part of his long reign. In 1342, at the age of sixteen, he succeeded his father as king of Hungary and was crowned at Székesfehérvár on the 21st of July with great enthusiasm. Louis led his armies many times in person. Besides his best known campaigns, he fought in Bulgaria, Bosnia, Wallachia Serbia, Lithuania and against the Golden Horde. The first Ottoman Hungarian clash occurred during his reign. He led assaults personally and climbed city walls together with his soldiers. He shared the privatio...
Culture of the royal court
Under the reign of his father (Charles I of Hungary), the Renaissance arrived in Hungary.The Renaissance style came directly from Italy during the Quattrocento to Hungary foremost in the Central European region. The development of the early Hungarian-Italian relationships was a reason of this infiltration, which weren't manifested only in dynastic connections, but in cultural, humanistic and commercial relations. This effect was getting stronger from the 14th century.In the first half of the...
Monetary and economic background
Kingdom of Hungary under the Angevins For the new economic taxation and customs system of his father see the Economic policy of Charles Iarticle. One of the primary sources of power of his father was the wealth derived from the gold mines of east and northern Hungary. Eventually itself the gold production of mines reached the remarkable figure of 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg) of gold annually – one third of the total production of the world as then known, and five times as much as that of any other...
Style of government
Despite the tradition of the strong parliaments in Hungary, Louis the Great did not want to share the royal power with the diet permanently. He convoked the Diet in 1351 and once again in 1352, but never after. The influence of the noblemen extended only to their county. Counties did not have either a permanent armed force nor other authority than the sedria (Latin: county). There were no local governments in the counties during the remainder of Louis' rule. To judge local criminals and admin...
During the four decades of his reign, the economic policy and power he inherited from his father was more than enough to carry on his military campaigns. He turned that accumulated economic capital to the uses of power. The Angevins introduced the so-called honor (=office; in old Hungarian becsü) system. Instead of further large donations (fiefdom/feudum) the faithful magnates (the Baron class and above) of the king were given an office. Powe...
Role as champion of the church
Their following campaigns "in every directions" (for example, against the Orthodox Serbs, the heretic Bosnians and pagan Lithuanians and Tartars) are in close connection with the political and converting ambitions of the Holy See. Louis the Great often provided military help in the inner fight of Ecclesiastic State of the Popes. Hungarian troops protected the Pope on his return from Avignon to Rome. In 1356 a letter from the Pope called him "Christ's shield, the Lord's athlete". In the meanti...
During his 40 years-long reign, there were only three years of peace (1342, 1375, 1376).
In 1370, Louis' maternal uncle, Casimir the Great, died leaving only daughters and illegitimate sons. Since arrangements had been made for Louis's succession as early as 1355, he became king of Poland upon his uncle's death in right of his mother, who held much of the practical power until her death in 1380. Thus, the first union of Hungary and Polandwas achieved. When Louis died in 1382, the Hungarian throne was inherited by his daughter Mary. In Poland, however, the lords of Lesser Poland did not want to continue the personal union with Hungary, nor to accept Mary's fiancé Sigismund as a regent. They therefore chose Mary's younger sister, Hedwig as their new monarch. After two years of negotiations with Louis widow, Elizabeth of Bosnia, who was regent of Hungary, and a civil war in Greater Poland (1383), Hedwig finally came to Kraków and was crowned "King" (not Queen) of Poland on 16 November 1384. The masculine gender in her title was intended to underline the fact that she was a...
Although he waged a host of campaigns outside Hungary, Louis did keep peace within Hungary itself. In an era when Spain was harassed by the Arabs, France targeted by the English, Germany tormented by the rivalries of its princes, Italy the scene of bloody conflicts among its city-states, Poland and Russia the objects of Lithuanian and Tartar attacks, and Byzantium and the Balkan states subject to Turkish raids and expansion, Hungary flourished as an island of peace. In death as in life, Louis expressed his wish to lie eternally by his idol's side. Accordingly, he was laid to rest in Nagyvárad beside the tomb of King Saint Ladislaus.
King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Rama, Bulgaria, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Jerusalem and Sicily from 1342, King of Poland from 1370
Louis was the second son of King Charles V of France and Joanna of Bourbon and was the younger brother of Charles VI. In 1498, his heirs male inherited the French throne after the extinction of the Valois main line.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Louis I may refer to: Louis the Pious, Louis I of France, "the Pious" (778–840), king of France and Holy Roman Emperor Ludwig I of Thuringia (ruled 1123–1140)
After his father's death in 1516, the minor Louis II ascended to the throne of Hungary and Croatia. Louis was adopted by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I in 1515. When Maximilian I died in 1519, Louis was raised by his legal guardian, his cousin George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach.
Louis II of Hungary (king 1516–1526) This disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.
Lajos: After the King of French origin Louis I of Hungary. László: The same happened [clarification needed] with Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary. Márk: After the evangelist Saint Mark. Márton: After Saint Martin of Tours, who was born in the early Middle Ages in the territory of modern-day Hungary, before it existed as a country.
For a list of presidents until present day, see List of heads of state of Hungary. For the semi-independent monarchs of Transylvania in the 16th and 17th centuries, see List of Princes of Transylvania. This is a list of Hungarian monarchs, which includes the grand princes (895–1000) and the kings and ruling queens of Hungary (1000–1918).