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The Tocharian (sometimes Tokharian) languages (/ təˈkɛəriən / or / təˈkɑːriən /), also known as Agnean-Kuchean or Kuchean-Agnean, are an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family spoken by inhabitants of the Tarim Basin, the Tocharians.
The Tocharians, or Tokharians (US: / t oʊ ˈ k ɛər i ə n / or / t oʊ ˈ k ɑːr i ə n /; UK: / t ɒ ˈ k ɑːr i ə n /), were speakers of Tocharian languages, Indo-European languages known from around 7600 documents from around 400 to 1200 AD, found on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China).
The Tocharian languages were a branch of the Indo-European languages. They are now extinct. They were spoken on the northern side of the Tarim Basin (now in Xinjiang, China). Writing was found from around the 5th century to the 8th century AD. There were three known languages in the branch, named A, B and C. References
Proto-Tocharian, also spelled Proto-Tokharian, is the reconstructed proto-language of the extinct Tocharian branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Tocharian is the unattested reconstructed ancestor of an Indo-European eponymous extinct branch, known from manuscripts dating from the 5th to the 8th century AD, which were on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin and the Lop Desert. The discovery of this language family in the early 20th century contradicted the formerly prevalent idea of an ea
Tocharian A deletes all Proto-Tocharian final vowels, as well as all instances of Proto-Tocharian ä in open syllables. When this produces impossible consonant sequences, these are rectified by vocalizing w and y into u and i, if possible; otherwise, an epenthetic ä is ...
The following are the main changes between PIE and Proto-Tocharian: 1. Centum change: PIE "palatals" merge with PIE "plain velars". 2. Loss of PIE d in a number of words when not followed by a PIE front vocalic. 3. Loss of contrastive voicing and aspiration, resulting in the merg
The outcomes of the PIE dentals in Tocharian, and in particular PIE *d, are complex and difficult to explain. Palatalization sometimes produces c, sometimes ts, sometimes ś, and in some words when a front vocalic does not follow, PIE *d is lost entirely, e.g. e.g. Toch AB ...
Phonetically, Proto-Tocharian is "centum" Indo-European languages, meaning that it merges the palatovelar consonants of Proto Indo-European with the plain velars rather than palatalizing them to affricates or sibilants. Centum languages are mostly found in western and southern Europe. In that sense, Proto-Tocharian seems to have been an isolate in the "satem" phonetic regions of Indo-European-speaking populations. The discovery of Tocharian languages contributed to doubts that Proto-Indo-Europea
The Tocharian script, also known as Central Asian slanting Gupta script or North Turkestan Brāhmī, is an abugida which uses a system of diacritical marks to associate vowels with consonant symbols. Part of the Brahmic scripts, it is a version of the Indian Brahmi script. It is used to write the Central Asian Indo-European Tocharian languages, mostly from the 8th century that were written on palm leaves, wooden tablets and Chinese paper, preserved by the extremely dry climate of the Tarim ...
The language of Kucha, as evidenced by surviving manuscripts and inscriptions, was Kuśiññe (Kushine) also known as Tocharian B or West Tocharian, an Indo-European language. Later, under the Uighur domination, the Kingdom of Kucha gradually became Turkic speaking.
The Tocharian (sometimes Tokharian) languages (/təˈkɛəriən/ or /təˈkɑːriən/), also known as Agnean-Kuchean or Kuchean-Agnean, are an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family spoken by inhabitants of the Tarim Basin, the Tocharians. They are known from manuscripts dating from the 5th to the 8th century AD, which were found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim ...
In total, 46% of the world's population (3.2 billion) speaks an Indo-European language as a first language, by far the highest of any language family. There are about 445 living Indo-European languages, according to the estimate by Ethnologue , with over two thirds (313) of them belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch .
- related to: Tocharian languages wikipedia
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