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  1. Post-independence years, 1972 – 1975. Bangladesh famine of 1974. Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League. Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Jail Killing Day. Military rule, 1975 – 1990. Military coups in Bangladesh. Chittagong Hill Tracts conflict. 1990 Mass Uprising.

  2. History of Bangladesh. Civilisational history of Bangladesh previously known as East Bengal, dates back over four millennia, to the Chalcolithic. The country's early documented history featured successions of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms and empires, vying for regional dominance. Islam arrived during the 6th-7th century AD and became dominant ...

  3. Any independence before then was achieved by a different entity, such as Pakistan. If a rename is nonetheless felt necessary, a better model would be that followed by history articles for the US, UK, Australia, Canada, Nigeria, South Africa, ... History of Bangladesh after independence → History of Bangladesh (1971–present).

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    Which country first recognized the independence of Bangladesh?

    How did Bangladesh become an independent country?

    What country did Bangladesh gain its independence from?

    Why did Bangladesh want independence?

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    Tension between the two factions of Pakistan

    The 1970s started with Bangladesh as part of erstwhile Pakistan amid intense political tension between the two factions of the country - East (later Bangladesh) and the West (later Pakistan). The East Pakistanis observed that the West Pakistani establishment would swiftly depose any East Pakistanis elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, such as Khawaja Nazimuddin, Mohammad Ali Bogra, or Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. Their suspicions were further aggravated by the military dictatorships of Ayub Khan...

    Bhola cyclone

    The 1970 Bhola cyclone made landfall on the East Pakistan coastline during the evening of 12 November, around the same time as a local high tide, killing an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 people. Though the exact death toll is not known, it is considered the deadliest tropical cyclone on record.A week after the landfall, President Khan conceded that his government had made "slips" and "mistakes" in its handling of the relief efforts due to a lack of understanding of the magnitude of the disaste...

    Formal Declaration of Independence

    In the early hours of 26 March 1971, a military crackdown by the Pakistan army began. The Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was arrested and the political leaders dispersed, mostly fleeing to neighbouring India where they organised a provisional government. Before being arrested by the Pakistani Army, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman passed a hand written note which contained the Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence. This note was widely circulated and transmitted by the then East Pakistan Rifles' wi...

    In the 1970s, Bangladesh used to be administratively divided into 4 divisions, namely Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna and Rajshahi which were further subdivided into a total of 17 districts (See List of districts of Bangladesh). After the independence, President's Order 7 issued in 1972 dissolved all the existing local government bodies and the names of the Union Council and District Council were changed to Union Panchayet and Zila Board, respectively. The Constitution of 1972 included specific provisions relating to the basic structure and functions of local bodies. Article 9 provided for the formation of local bodies at every administrative units to be composed of elected representatives of the areas concerned. In 1976, the Local Government Ordinance (LGO) issued by the government of General Ziaur Rahman made provisions for the formation of three types of rural local government, Union Parishad, Thana Parishad and Zila Parishad. In 1978, Jamalpurwas upgraded to a District.

    Based on World Development Indicators published by the World Bankthe population of Bangladesh grew from 63 million at the beginning of the decade to 79 million by the end. This signifies an annual population growth rate of 2.3%. Population density increased from 487 to 609 per sq. km. The urban population was 7.6% of the total at the beginning, which ended up at 13.7%. Dhaka, the largest city, with a population of 1.4 million, accounted for 27.8% of the total urban population by 1979. United Nations World Population Prospectsshow that the population growth rate was in increasing trend (from 2.5% per annum to 2.8%), despite reduction in fertility rate (births per woman) from 6.9 to 6.5. Life expectancy at birth increased from 47.5 years to 52.9 years with Child (0-5) mortality reducing from 224 per 1,000 births to 203. Age dependency ratio (% of working-age population) changed from 91.0% to 92.6% by the end of the decade.

    Compared to prior decade the October and November became warmer by about 0.5 degree Celsius and February and May became cooler by similar magnitude. Thus overall temperature profile became more moderate. Average rainfall decreased for June by about 59mm and increased for September by about 69mm. Average annual rainfall increased by about 74mm.

    National Income and Balance of Payment

    Bangladesh GDP was USD 26.4 billion in 1970, which grew to USD 28.4 billion in 1979 (in 2010 constant dollar) signifying a 0.7% annual growth. Agricultural Sector contributed to 54.6% of GDP in the beginning of the decade, which decreased to 52.5% by the end. During the same period contribution from the industrial sector increased from 8.7% to 15.7% and that of the service sector decreased from 36.7% to 31.9%.Per capita GDP decreased from USD 406 to USD 358 (in 2010 constant dollar). Accordin...


    During this decade, crop production grew at an annual average rate of 0.9% driven by cereal production increase from 16.9 million metric tons to 19.7 million (implying annual growth of 1.5%) - enabled by improvement in cereal yield from 1666.2 kg per hectare to 1870.9 kg. At the same time, livestock production grew at annual 2.7% and fisheries production decreased at annual 0.6%. Altogether these contributed to overall food production increase by annualized rate of 1.2%. The catastrophic fami...

    Industrial and Service Sectors

    Net value addition from industrial sector, which stood at USD 3.8 billion in 1970 (in 2010 constant USD), grew at average annual rate of 1.1% to USD 4.2 billion by 1979 (in the same constant USD basis). Manufacturing sector contributed 62.1% of industrial value added in the beginning of this period and it gradually changed to 66.1% by the end. By 1979 manufacturers export accounted for 64.5% of total merchandise export while import supporting the manufacturing segment accounted for 55.2% of t...


    When Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971, it inherited 3,860 km of pucca roads, 2858.73 km of railway tracks and 466 railway stations, but most roads and connecting bridges were in shambles due to the ravage of the war. After the independence war-ravaged roads, culverts and bridges were reconstructed fast and some new bridges on the national highways were built. All the district headquarters were connected with the national highway network.The construction of double line track between Dh...


    The erstwhile Telegraph branch under Posts and Telegraph Department of the government was reconstructed as Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Department under Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications in 1971 and again as Telegraph and Telephone Board in 1975. In 1979 Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board (BTTB) was given the right to issue license for telecom and wireless services.In the beginning of the decade there were 45,000 fixed telephone line subscription in the country - which incr...


    Through Presidential Order 59 of 31st May 1972, Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) was entrusted with the responsibilities of operation, maintenance, and development of generation, transmission & distribution facilities of electricity throughout the country. A separate division of the Ministry of Energy oversaw oil and gas while Petrobangla, established in 1974, became the main state oil and gas operator. Later, Rural Electrification Board(REB) was established for the development of el...

    Tahrunessa Abdullah, A social worker who championed the role of women in improving their families' livelihoods, was awarded Ramon Magsaysay Awardin 1978.


    The literary works of the 1970s had strong influence of Bangladesh Liberation war on them. Notable literary works from Bangladeshi authors from this decade include Shawkat Osman's Jahannam Haite Biday, Dui Sainik, Nekde Aranya, Jalamgi and Janma Yadi Taba Bange; Selina Hossain's Hangor Nodi Grenade, Jalochchhvas and Magnachaitanye Shis; Humayun Ahmed's debut novel Nandita Narake and Shankhanil Karagar; Bashir Al Helal's Pratham Krishnachuda and Kalo Ilish; Rahat Khan's Anishchita Lokalay and...

    Visual arts

    After the independence a few pioneers helped set the tone of fine arts for Bangladesh. In the field of photography – Manzoor Alam Beg and Anwar Hossain made their marks. The field of painting was particularly vibrant with painters Quamrul Hassan, SM Sultan and Monirul Islam actively contributing and new artists like Monsur Ul Karim and Shahabuddin Ahmed coming up. Sultan did some of his best work in the 1970s. In 1976 the Bangladesh Shilpakala Academy put on an individual exhibition of his wo...

    Performing arts

    Music played an important role in the Bangladesh Liberation war. Music directors and composers Samar Das, Ajit Roy and Shujeo Shyam along with singers and musicians like Apel Mahmud, Amitava Sengupta, Manjula Dasgupta, Abdul Jabbar, Mala Khan, Rupa Khan, Rafiqul Alam, Kaderi Kibria, Lucky Akhand, Jahangir Hayat Khan, Mihir Kumar Nandi, Timir Nandi, Fakir Alamgir and Dalia Nausheen played instrumental role in Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra in inspiring the freedom fighters and the nation. A pair...

  5. After Mughals, British ruled the region for 200 years until the independence of India. In 1947, Dhaka became the capital of the East Bengal province under the Dominion of Pakistan. After the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, Dhaka became the capital of the new state.

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    Earliest civilizations

    The delta and surrounding hills has been inhabited for hundreds of generations (thousands of years). The area supported agriculture very early on. About 500 BC there was a shift to growing rice. This led to the development of urban areas. Because there were no stone quarries in the area houses were built of wood and mud (including adobe). Because of the monsoon climate very little evidence of the earliest inhabitants remains. From about 300 BC to the 1700s AD the Bengal delta saw the developm...

    Islamic history

    The Islamic faith took in shape foothold in the 13th century when it fell to Turkic armies. The last major Hindu Sena ruler was expelled from his capital at Nadia in Western Bengal in 1202, although lesser Sena rulers held sway for a short while after in Eastern Bengal. Bengal was loosely associated with the Delhi Sultanate, established in 1206, and paid a tribute in War elephants in order to maintain autonomy. In 1341 Bengal became independent from Delhi, and Dhaka was established as the sea...

    Political states

    For much of its history the area was simply just called Bengal and was considered a part of India. The last few centuries several foreign powers involved themselves with the area resulting in several wars. The 20th century brought more wars, genocide, and political states. Bengal was under British rule from 1757–1947. It was a part of British India. In 1947 East Bengal and the Dominion of Pakistan were separated from present-day Republic of India and thus formed a new birth of country named P...

    The President, while Head of State, holds a largely ceremonial post, with the real power held by the Prime Minister, who is Head of Government. The president is elected by the legislature every 5 years and his normally limited powers are substantially expanded during the tenure of a Caretaker Government, mainly in controlling the transition to a new government. The prime minister is appointed by the president and must be a member of parliament (MP) whom the president feels commands the confidence of the majority of other MPs. The Cabinetis composed of ministers selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president. The unicameral Bangladeshi parliament is the House of the Nation or Jatiya Sangsad, whose 300 members are elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies for five-year terms of office. The highest Judiciarybody is the Supreme Court, of which the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president. After its independence from Pakistan, the...

    Despite independence in 1971, Bangladesh is still a poor country and has problems with corruption and political troubles. Presently more than half of the people can read and write. Bangladesh has heavy cyclones and natural disasters, due to this many lives are often lost. The country is one of the most densely populated in the world. Cyclones are very common in the Bay of Bengal during the middle of the year, particularly in the south of country in areas like Sundarban, Chittagong, Cox's Bazaar, or in neighboring Myanmar and Republic of India. Despite the many storms, Bangladesh does not have a very effective storm prevention system, and cyclones usually inflict heavy damage.

    Bangladesh is in the Ganges Delta. This is where the rivers Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna come together. Most parts of Bangladesh are less than 12 m (39.4 ft) above the sea level. The highest point in Bangladesh is in Mowdok range at 1,052 m (3,451 ft) in the Chittagong Hill Tracts to the southeast of the country. Cox's Bazar, south of the city of Chittagong, has a beach that is uninterrupted over 120 km (75 mi). A large part of the coastline is a marshy jungle, the Sundarbans. They are the largest mangroveforest in the world.

    Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions: Barisal (বরিশাল), Chittagong (চট্টগ্রাম), Dhaka (ঢাকা), Khulna (খুলনা), Rajshahi (রাজশাহী), Sylhet (সিলেট), and Rangpur(রংপুর). Divisions are divided into districts. There are 64 districts in Bangladesh. Dhaka is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. Other major cities include Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Barisal, Bogra, Comilla, Mymensingh and Rangpur. For more locations see List of settlements in Bangladesh.

    The main religion in Bangladesh is Islam at (91.57%), while the second largest religion is Hinduism at (7.26%) as per 2021 religious projection by Bangladesh census Research authority. Most Muslims are Sunni. Islam was made the state religion in the 1988s in the country's constitution. Buddhists and Christianstogether make up 1% of the population. Bangladesh have a population of 174.3 million as per 2021 census official survey.

    The earliest literary text in Bengali is the 8th century Charyapada. Medieval Bengali literature was often either religious or from other languages. The 19th century had poets such as Rabindranath Tagore, Michael Madhusudan Dutt and Kazi Nazrul Islam. The musical tradition of Bangladesh is lyrics-based with little instruments. Folk music is often accompanied by the ektara, an instrument with only one string. Bangladeshi dance forms are from folk traditions. Bangladesh makes about 80 films a year. Mainstream Hindi films are also quite popular.Around 200 daily newspapers are published in Bangladesh, along with more than 500 magazines. Rice and fish are traditional favorite foods. Biryaniis a favorite dish of Bangladeshis. The sariis by far the most widely worn dress by Bangladeshi women.The salwar kameez (shaloar kamiz) is also quite popular among especially the younger females, and In urban areas some women wear western attire. Among men, western attire is more widely worn. Eid ul-Fi...

    Cricket is the most popular sport in Bangladesh. Next is football (soccer). The national cricket team was in their first Cricket World Cup in 1999. In 2011, Bangladesh successfully co-hosted the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 with India and Sri Lanka. Hadudu (kabaddi) is the national sport in Bangladesh. Other popular sports include field hockey, tennis, badminton, handball, basketball, volleyball, chess, shooting, angling, and carrom.

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