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Eastern Europe. Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations.
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Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe.Originally, it referred to the countries that were under the influence of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople during the middle ages, which was in contrast to the West which referred to the countries under the influence of the Roman Catholic and later Protestant Churches.
Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe, the Baltics, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Europe (the Balkans ), usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern Bloc ( Warsaw Pact) in Europe. Scholarly literature often uses the abbreviations CEE or CEEC for this term.
In the 17th century, polkovnik became the position of a regimental commander of the streltsy; this position also made it into New Regiments of the streltsy and later into the new army of Peter the Great. The rank was legalized by Table of Ranks that placed it in the 6th grade as the second-top field officer, right under the brigadier. A promotion to the rank of polkovnik gave a privilege of hereditary nobility. The Red Army reintroduced the polkovnik rank in 1935, together with a number of other former Russian ranks, and it has been used in many ex-USSR countries, including Russia, to the present day.
As part of the Commonwealth
The rank was first introduced in the armies of the Commonwealth in the 17th century to denote a captain (rotmistrz) of the core banner of a regiment. By the end of the 17th century, the title of the assignment became a de facto rank as such and started to denote the commanding officer of the entire regiment. In mercenary troops fighting in the ranks of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's army, the direct equivalent of the rank of pułkownik was oberszter, but in the 18th century the rank was...
During the Sanation in the period between World War I and World War II, a large number of officers were promoted to the rank, often for political reasons (the rule of the Sanation was even dubbed the government of the colonelsbecause of that).
World War II
During the Invasion of Poland in 1939, the Polish divisions were commanded by officers of many grades, from colonels to three-star generals. In fact 22 divisions out of 42 were commanded by colonels in 1939. The pułkownicy (plural of pułkownik) also commanded units of all sizes, from divisions down to mere battalions.
In the Zaporozhian Host, the political, social, and military organization of Ukrainian cossacks, the title polkovnyk indicated a high military rank among the Ukrainian Cossack starshyna (officers); a polkovnyk commanded one or more military detachments during land and naval military actions in the 16th to 18th centuries. In the 18th century, a polkovnyk was a leader of a palanka, a territorial unit of the Zaporozhian Host. The military council elected a palanka polkovnyk to serve for a term of one year. He represented the Kosh Otaman in the palanka and had significant powers, including the right to condemn Cossacks to the death penalty. At the time of liquidation of the Zaporozhian Host by the Russian government in 1775, there were eight palanka polkovnyks. As symbol of office a polkovnyk wore a pernach (a mace with a hexagonal head; see also bulawa) in his belt. In the Registered Cossack Army of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th and 17th centuries, a polkovnyk commande...
- Origins and variations of the name
Galicia was a historical and geographic region at the crossroad of Central and Eastern Europe. It was once the small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine. The area, named after the medieval city of Halych, was first mentioned in Hungarian historical chronicles in the year 1206 as Galiciæ. In 1253 Prince Daniel of Galicia was crowned the King of Rus or...
Andrew II, King of Hungary from 1205 to 1235, claimed the title Rex Galiciae et Lodomeriae – a Latinised version of the Slavic names Halych and Volodymyr, the major cities of the principality of Halych-Volhynia, which the Hungarians ruled from 1214 to 1221. Halych-Volhynia had cut a swathe as a mighty principality under the rule of Prince Roman the Great from 1170 to 1205. After the expulsion of the Hungarians in 1221, Ruthenians took back rule of the area. Roman's son Daniel of Galicia ...
In Roman times, the region was populated by various tribes of Celto-Germanic admixture, including Celtic-based tribes – like the Galice or "Gaulics" and Bolihinii or "Volhynians" – the Lugians and Cotini of Celtic, Vandals and Goths of Germanic origins. During the Great Migration period of Europe, a variety of nomadic groups invaded the area, but overall, the East Slavic tribes White Croats and Tivertsi dominated the area since the 6th century until were annexed to Kyivan Rus in the ...
In 1773, Galicia had about 2.6 million inhabitants in 280 cities and market towns and approximately 5,500 villages. There were nearly 19,000 noble families, with 95,000 members. The serfs accounted for 1.86 million, more than 70% of the population. A small number were full-time farmers, but by far the overwhelming number had only smallholdings or no possessions. Galicia had arguably the most ethnically diverse population of all the countries in the Austrian monarchy, consisting mainly of Poles a
The new state borders cut Galicia off from many of its traditional trade routes and markets of the Polish sphere, resulting in stagnation of economic life and decline of Galician towns. Lviv lost its status as a significant trade centre. After a short period of limited investments, the Austrian government started the fiscal exploitation of Galicia and drained the region of manpower through conscription to the imperial army. The Austrians decided that Galicia should not develop industrially but r
The list below uses a definition of Western Europe which includes the United Kingdom and Ireland. Site – named after the World Heritage Committee's official designation Location – sorted by country, followed by the region at the regional or provincial level and geocoordinates. In the case of multinational or multi-regional sites, the names ...SiteLocationCriteriaArea ha (acre)Nesebar, Burgas Province, Bulgaria ...Cultural: (iii), (iv)27 (67); buffer zone 1,246 (3,080)Ancient City of Tauric Chersonese and its ...Crimea, Ukraine 44°36′39″N 33°29′29″E / ...Cultural: (ii), (v)259 (640); buffer zone 3,041 (7,510)Sergiyev Posad, Moscow Oblast, Russia ...Cultural: (ii), (iv)—Nesvizh, Minsk Region, Belarus 53°13′22″N ...Cultural: (ii), (iv), (vi)—
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations.
This is the map and list of European countries by monthly average wage (annual divided by 12 months) gross and net income (after taxes) average wages for full-time employees in their local currency and in euros.
Western Europe is the region of Europe farthest from Asia, with the countries and territories included varying depending on context.. After the beginning of foreign exploration in the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of Europe as "the West" began gradually to be distinguished from and eventually to replace the hitherto dominant use of "Christendom" as the preferred ...
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