Japan is the eleventh-most populous country in the world, as well as one of the most densely populated and urbanized. About three-fourths of the country's terrain is mountainous, concentrating its population of 125.36 million on narrow coastal plains. Japan is divided into 47 administrative prefectures and eight traditional regions.
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In the postwar decades, the standard of living in Japan has undergone a dramatic rise. Japanese consumers have benefited from the nation's economic growth, while in turn they have stimulated the economy through demand for sophisticated products, loyalty to domestically produced goods, and saving and pooling investment funds.
The Japanese Wikipedia (ウィキペディア日本語版, Wikipedia Nihongo-ban, literally "Wikipedia: Japanese-language version") is the Japanese-language edition of Wikipedia, a free, open-source online encyclopedia. Started on 11 May 2001, the edition attained the 200,000 article mark in April 2006 and the 500,000 article mark in June 2008.
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The early laws of Japan are believed to have been heavily influenced by Chinese law. Little is known about Japanese law prior to the seventh century, when the Ritsuryō was developed and codified. Before Chinese characterswere adopted and adapted by the Japanese, the Japanese had no known writing system with which to record their history. Chinese characters were known to the Japanese in earlier centuries, but the process of assimilation of these characters into their indigenous language system...
In 604, Prince Shotoku established the Seventeenth-article Constitution, which differed from modern constitutions in that it was also moral code for the bureaucracy and aristocracy. While it was influenced by Buddhism, it also showed a desire to establish a political system centered on the emperor, with the help of a coalition of noble families. Nevertheless, there are doubts that the document was fabricated later. Japan began to dispatch envoys to China's Sui Dynasty in 607. Later, in 630, t...
Laws under the shogunates
Beginning in the 9th century, the Ritsuryo system began to break down. As the power of the manor lords (荘園領主) grew stronger, the manor lords' estate laws (honjohō 本所法) began to develop. Furthermore, as the power of the samurais rose, samurai laws (武家法 bukehō) came to be established. In the early Kamakura period, the power of the imperial court in Kyoto remained strong, and a dual legal order existed with samurai laws and Kuge laws (公家法 kugehō), the latter having developed on the basis of old...
The present national authorities and legal system are constituted upon the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947. The Constitution contains thirty-three articles relating to human rights and articles providing for the separation of powers vested into three independent bodies: the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.Laws, ordinances and government acts that violate the Constitution do not have legal effect, and courts are authorized to judicially review acts for conformity with the co...
The Six Codes in modern Japanese law
The modernization of Japanese law by transplanting law from Western countries began after the Meiji Restoration in 1868, in which the Japanese Emperor was officially restored to political power.Japanese law is primarily inspired by the Civilian system in continental Europe, which emphasizes codified statutes ("codes") that set out the basic legal framework in a particular area of law. The first major legislation enacted in Japan was the Criminal Code of 1880, followed by the Constitution of t...
Japanese civil law(concerning the relationship between private individuals, also known as private law) includes the Civil Code, the Commercial Code, and various supplemental laws. The Civil Code of Japan (民法 Minpō) was created in 1896. It was heavily influenced by the 1887 draft of the German Civil Code, and to a lesser extent the French Civil Code.The code is divided into five books: 1. Book One is the General Part(総則), which includes basic rules and definitions of Japanese civil law, such as the capacity of natural and juridical persons, juristic acts, and agency. 2. Book Two is entitled Real Rights(物権) and covers property and security rights over real property. 3. Book Three is the Law of Obligations (債権). Like in other civil law countries, tort law is considered one source from which an obligation emerges, together with unjust enrichment, and contract law. 4. Book Four deals with family relations(親族), including marriage and guardianship. 5. Book Five covers inheritance(相続), incl...
The national level police organizations are the National Public Safety Commission and the National Police Agency(NPA). Since the commission makes basic policy while the NPA administers police affairs, the commission has control over the NPA. The commission is a governmental body responsible mainly for the administrative supervision of the police and coordination of police administration. It also oversees matters relating to police education, communication, criminal identification, criminal statistics and police equipment. To ensure its independence and neutrality, not even the Prime Minister is empowered to direct and give orders to the NPSC. The NPA, which is headed by a Director General, maintains Regional Police Bureaus as its local agencies throughout the country. There are seven bureaus in the major cities, excluding Tokyo and the northern island of Hokkaido. Police law stipulates that each prefectural government, which is a local entity, shall have its own Prefectural Police (...
Japan recognizes a large number of legal professions, however the number of lawyers is significantly fewer than in the United States. This is due to the fact that Japanese law is based on the Continental European civil law system and a very small number of lawyers (advocates) are complemented by large numbers of civil law notaries and scriveners. Japan introduced a new legal training system in 2004 as part of a justice system reform. The justice system reform has been criticized for failing to incorporate a gender perspective.The major professions, each of which has a separate qualification process, include: 1. Attorney at law(弁護士, bengoshi) 2. Registered Attorney at foreign law(外国法事務弁護士, gaikokuhō jimu bengoshi, or "gaiben") 3. Notary(公証人, kōshōnin) 4. Administrative scrivener(行政書士, gyōsei shoshi) 5. Judicial scrivener(司法書士, shihō shoshi) 6. Certified public accountant(公認会計士, kōnin kaikeishi) 7. Certified tax accountant(税理士, zeirishi) 8. Patent attorney(弁理士, benrishi) 9. Certified...
Japan's court system is divided into four basic tiers, 438 Summary Courts, one District Court in each prefecture, eight High Courts and the Supreme Court. There is also one Family Court tied to each District Court.International Family LawTeruki Tsunemoto, Trends in Japanese Constitutional Law Cases: Important Judicial Decisions for 2004[dead link], trans. Daryl Takeno, Asian-Pacific Law & Policy JournalTeruki Tsunemoto, Trends in Japanese Constitutional Law Cases: Important Legal Precedents for 2005[dead link], trans. John Donovan, Yuko Funaki, and Jennifer Shimada, Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Jou...Teruki Tsunemoto, Trends in Japanese Constitutional Law Cases: Important Legal Precedents for 2006[dead link], trans. Asami Miyazawa and Angela Thompson, Asian-Pacific Law & Policy JournalJapanese Law Translation by the Ministry of Justice(Japanese Law Translation Database System in English)[ Transparency of Japanese Law Project] (contains the overview and court cases in various areas)
Monthly suicide rates in Japan increased by 16% between July and October 2020, due to a number of reasons attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic.  Seventy percent of suicides in Japan are male,  and it is the leading cause of death in men aged 20–44.
The Japanese economic miracle is known as Japan 's record period of economic growth between the post- World War II era to the end of the Cold War. During the economic boom, Japan rapidly became the world's second largest economy (after the United States ). By the 1990s, Japan's demographics began stagnating and the workforce was no longer ...
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