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  1. Proprietary software - Wikipedia › wiki › Proprietary_software

    Proprietary software From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Proprietary software, also known as non- free software, is computer software for which the software's publisher or another person reserves some rights from licensees to use, modify, share modifications, or share the software. It sometimes includes patent rights.

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  3. Proprietary software - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ... › wiki › Proprietary_software

    Proprietary software is usually created by businesses who want to sell their software, but some programs that are free to use are still proprietary because the user is not allowed to change them. With proprietary software, only the people that make the software can see and change the code.

  4. List of proprietary source-available software - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_proprietary_source

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is a list of proprietary source-available software, which has available source code, but is not classified as free software or open-source software. In some cases, this type of software is originally sold and released without the source code, and the source code becomes available later.

    Original author
    Original release
    Source code availability
    February 2013
    Bitstream Vera (font)
  5. List of formerly proprietary software - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_formerly

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is a list of notable software packages which were published under a proprietary software license but later released as free and open-source software, or into the public domain. In some cases, the company continues to publish proprietary releases alongside the non-proprietary version.

    Original release
    Relicensed release
    Initial free relicense
  6. Category:Proprietary software - Wikipedia › wiki › Category:Proprietary_software

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikimedia Commons has media related to Proprietary software. The main article for this category is Proprietary software.

  7. Talk:Proprietary software - Wikipedia › wiki › Talk:Proprietary_software

    Proprietary software, also known as non-free software, or closed-source software, is computer software for which the software's publisher or another person restrict's the user's freedom to run, edit, contribute to, or share the software. It may restrict patent rights.

  8. List of proprietary software for Linux - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_proprietary

    This list may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (December 2010) Linux is an open-source kernel and usually comes bundled with free and open-source software; however, proprietary software for Linux does exist and is available to end-users. The following is a list of proprietary software for Linux:

  9. Proprietary software — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › Proprietary_software
    • Software Becoming Proprietary
    • Legal Basis
    • Exclusive Rights
    • Interoperability with Software and Hardware
    • Abandonment by Owners
    • Formerly Open-Source Software
    • Pricing and Economics
    • Examples

    Until the late 1960s com­put­ers—large and ex­pen­sive main­frame com­put­ers, ma­chines in spe­cially air-con­di­tioned com­puter rooms—were leased to cus­tomers rather than sold. Ser­vice and all soft­ware avail­able were usu­ally sup­plied by man­u­fac­tur­ers with­out sep­a­rate charge until 1969. Com­puter ven­dors usu­ally pro­vided the source code for in­stalled soft­ware to customers.[citation needed] Cus­tomers who de­vel­oped soft­ware often made it avail­able to oth­ers with­out charge.Closed source means com­puter pro­grams whose source code is not pub­lished. It is avail­able to be edited only by the or­ga­ni­za­tion by which it is de­vel­oped. In 1969, IBM, which had an­titrust law­suits pend­ing against it, led an in­dus­try change by start­ing to charge sep­a­rately for main­frame soft­wareand ser­vices, by un­bundling hard­ware and software. Bill Gates' "Open Let­ter to Hob­by­ists" in 1976 de­cried com­puter hob­by­ists' ram­pant copy­right in­fringe­ment of soft­w...

    Most soft­ware is cov­ered by copy­right which, along with con­tract law, patents, and trade se­crets, pro­vides legal basis for its owner to es­tab­lish ex­clu­sive rights. A soft­ware ven­dor de­lin­eates the spe­cific terms of use in an end-user li­cense agree­ment (EULA). The user may agree to this con­tract in writ­ing, in­ter­ac­tively on screen (click­wrap), or by open­ing the box con­tain­ing the soft­ware (shrink wrap li­cens­ing). Li­cense agree­ments are usu­ally not ne­go­tiable. Soft­ware patents grant ex­clu­sive rights to al­go­rithms, soft­ware fea­tures, or other patentable sub­ject mat­ter, with cov­er­age vary­ing by ju­ris­dic­tion. Ven­dors some­times grant patent rights to the user in the li­cense agreement. The source code for a piece of soft­ware is rou­tinely han­dled as a trade se­cret. Oc­ca­sion­ally, soft­ware is made avail­able with fewer re­stric­tions on li­cens­ing or source-code ac­cess; such soft­ware is known as "free" or "open-source."

    The owner of pro­pri­etary soft­ware ex­er­cises cer­tain ex­clu­sive rightsover the soft­ware. The owner can re­strict use, in­spec­tion of source code, mod­i­fi­ca­tion of source code, and re­dis­tri­b­u­tion.

    Proprietary file formats and protocols

    Pro­pri­etary soft­ware often[citation needed] stores some of its data in file for­mats which are in­com­pat­i­ble with other soft­ware, and may also com­mu­ni­cate using pro­to­cols which are in­com­pat­i­ble. Such for­mats and pro­to­cols may be re­stricted as trade se­crets or sub­ject to patents.[citation needed]

    Proprietary APIs

    A pro­pri­etary ap­pli­ca­tion pro­gram­ming in­ter­face (API) is a soft­ware li­brary in­ter­face "spe­cific to one de­vice or, more likely to a num­ber of de­vices within a par­tic­u­lar man­u­fac­turer's prod­uct range." The mo­ti­va­tion for using a pro­pri­etary API can be ven­dor lock-inor be­cause stan­dard APIs do not sup­port the de­vice's functionality. The Eu­ro­pean Com­mis­sion, in its March 24, 2004 de­ci­sion on Mi­crosoft's busi­ness practices, quotes, in para­graph 463, Mi­cr...

    Vendor lock-in

    A de­pen­dency on the fu­ture ver­sions and up­grades for a pro­pri­etary soft­ware pack­age can cre­ate ven­dor lock-in, en­trench­ing a mo­nop­oly position.

    Pro­pri­etary soft­ware which is no longer mar­keted, sup­ported or sold by its owner is called aban­don­ware, the dig­i­tal form of or­phaned works. If the pro­pri­etor of a soft­ware pack­age should cease to exist, or de­cide to cease or limit pro­duc­tion or sup­port for a pro­pri­etary soft­ware pack­age, re­cip­i­ents and users of the pack­age may have no re­course if prob­lems are found with the soft­ware. Pro­pri­etors can fail to im­prove and sup­port soft­ware be­cause of busi­ness problems. Sup­port for older or ex­ist­ing ver­sions of a soft­ware pack­age may be ended to force users to up­grade and pay for newer versions (planned ob­so­les­cence). Some­times an­other ven­dor or a soft­ware's com­mu­nity them­selves can pro­vide sup­port for the soft­ware, or the users can mi­grate to ei­ther com­pet­ing sys­tems with longer sup­port life cy­cles or to FOSS-based systems. Some closed-source soft­ware is re­leased by their owner at end-of-life as open-source or source avail...

    Some for­merly open-source soft­ware was made pro­pri­etary later. Some­times for com­mer­cial­iza­tion rea­sons, some­times as se­cu­rity or anti-cheat mea­sure­ment (Se­cu­rity through ob­scu­rity). A fa­mous ex­am­ple of such is the Doom source port ZDae­mon which was prone to aim­botcheaters.

    Pro­pri­etary soft­ware is not syn­ony­mous with com­mer­cial soft­ware, al­though the two terms are some­times used syn­ony­mously in ar­ti­cles about free software. Pro­pri­etary soft­ware can be dis­trib­uted at no cost or for a fee, and free soft­ware can be dis­trib­uted at no cost or for a fee.The dif­fer­ence is that whether or not pro­pri­etary soft­ware can be dis­trib­uted, and what the fee would be, is at the pro­pri­etor's dis­cre­tion. With free soft­ware, any­one who has a copy can de­cide whether, and how much, to charge for a copy or re­lated services. Pro­pri­etary soft­ware that comes for no cost is called free­ware. Pro­po­nents of com­mer­cial pro­pri­etary soft­ware argue that re­quir­ing users to pay for soft­ware as a prod­uct in­creases fund­ing or time avail­able for the re­search and de­vel­op­ment of soft­ware. For ex­am­ple, Mi­crosoftsays that per-copy fees max­imise the prof­itabil­ity of soft­ware development. Pro­pri­etary soft­ware gen­er­ally cre­at...

    Ex­am­ples of pro­pri­etary soft­ware in­clude Mi­crosoft Win­dows, Adobe Flash Player, PS3 OS, iTunes, Adobe Pho­to­shop, Google Earth, macOS (for­merly Mac OS X and OS X), Skype, Win­RAR, Or­a­cle's ver­sion of Java and some ver­sions of Unix. Soft­ware dis­tri­b­u­tions con­sid­ered as pro­pri­etary may in fact in­cor­po­rate a "mixed source" model in­clud­ing both free and non-free soft­ware in the same distribution. Most if not all so-called pro­pri­etary UNIX dis­tri­b­u­tions are mixed source soft­ware, bundling open-source com­po­nents like BIND, Send­mail, X Win­dow Sys­tem, DHCP, and oth­ers along with a purely pro­pri­etary ker­neland sys­tem utilities. Some free soft­ware pack­ages are also si­mul­ta­ne­ously avail­able under pro­pri­etary terms. Ex­am­ples in­clude MySQL, Send­mail and ssh. The orig­i­nal copy­right hold­ers for a work of free soft­ware, even copy­left free soft­ware, can use dual-li­cens­ing to allow them­selves or oth­ers to re­dis­trib­ute pro­pri­et...

  10. Free software - Wikipedia › wiki › Free_software

    Proprietary software uses restrictive software licences or EULAs and usually does not provide users with the source code. Users are thus legally or technically prevented from changing the software, and this results in reliance on the publisher to provide updates, help, and support. (See also vendor lock-in and abandonware).

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