Russian (Russian: русский язык, romanized: russkiy yazyk) is an East Slavic language mainly spoken across Russia. It is the native language of the Russians, and belongs to the Indo-European language family. It is one of four living East Slavic languages, [j] and is also a part of the larger Balto-Slavic languages.
- Standard Russian
Standard Russian is also called modern literary Russian (Современный русский литературный язык). It first appeared at the beginning of the 18th century. Peter the Great was then working to make the state more modern. Standard Russian grew out of the dialect of Russian that was spoken by people in and around Moscow. In some ways, Standard Russian wa...
In Russian, a person's name has three parts: the first name, the second name and the family name. Parents choose the first name for their child. Some common Russian names for boys are Ivan, Vladimir, Mikhail and Nikolai. Some common Russian names for girls are Anna, Anastasia, Svetlana and Yekaterina. The second name is the patronymic (Russian: otc...
Like Latin, Greek, and German, Russian has a case system. In Russian, it applies to nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals and participles with a set of word endings (sounds/letters attached to the ends of words) that show the grammatical roles of words in a sentence. Because the grammatical roles are shown by the endings, word orderis freer in than in English. There are six cases in Russian. The nominative case, the form listed in the dictionary, is used for the subject of the sentence. The g...
Gender and number
In Russian, nouns have one of three genders: masculine, feminine, or neutral. This is the same for languages like French, Spanish, etc. Masculine nouns usually end in consonants, neutral nouns usually end in -o or -e, and feminine nouns usually end in -a or -я. The plural acts like a fourth genderbecause gender does not change plural words.
In Russian, an adjective must agree with the word that it describes in gender, case and number. In the nominative case, adjectives that describe feminine words usually end in -ая or -яя. Those that describe masculine words usually end in -ый, -ий or -ой. Those that describe neuterwords usually end in -ое or -ее. Those that describe plural words usually end in -ые or -ие. The endings change depending on case.
Of all the languages of Russia, Russian, the most widely spoken language, is the only official language at the national level. There are 35 languages which are considered official languages in various regions of Russia, along with Russian. There are over 100 minority languages spoken in Russia today. The new approved amendments to the Russian Constitution stipulate that Russian be the language of the “state forming people”. With president Vladimir Putin’s signing of an executive order ...
The Russian Wikipedia is the Russian-language edition of Wikipedia. As of August 2022, it has 1,845,356 articles. It was started on 11 May 2001. In October 2015, it became the sixth-largest Wikipedia by the number of articles. It has the sixth-largest number of edits. In June 2020, it was the world's 6th most visited language Wikipedia after the En...
Difficult issues are resolved through the Arbitration Committee, which handles content disputes, blocks users or prohibits certain users from editing articles on certain topics. Administrators are elected through a vote; a minimum quorum of 30 voters and 66% of support votes are required if the request is to be considered successful. Administrators...
As of 1 June 2012, some of the biggest categories in the Russian Wikipedia are: 1. 176,411 biographical articles. Although the Western name order is generally used in Russian, the Russian Wikipedia uses lexical order for all articles on non-fictional persons. This order has been traditionally used in major Russian language encyclopedias, like the G...
In 2015, Roman Leibov, a professor at University of Tartu, in an interview opined that articles related to humanities in the Russian Wikipedia are of considerably inferior quality compared to English Wikipedia, and some articles even deteriorate with time. He suggested that this effect is due to overzealous policing of intellectual property rights ...
The Russian Wikipedia was created on 20 May 2001 in the first wave of non-English Wikipedias, along with editions in Catalan, Chinese, Dutch, German, Esperanto, French, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish. The countries in which the Russian Wikipedia is th
On 10 July 2012, Russian Wikipedia closed access to its content for 24 hours in protest against proposed amendments to Russia's Information Act regulating the accessibility of Internet-based information to children. Among other things, the bill stipulates the creation and country
- External history
- Internal history
Russian is an East Slavic language of the Indo-European family. All Indo-European languages are descendants of a single prehistoric language, reconstructed as Proto-Indo-European, spoken sometime in the Neolithic era. Although no written records remain, much of the culture and religion of the Proto-Indo-European people can also be reconstructed bas...
Up to the 14th century, ancestors of the modern Russians spoke dialects of the Old East Slavic language, related to the dialects of other East Slavs. This spoken tongue and the literary Old Church Slavonic language operated throughout Kievan Rus. The earliest written record of th
After the disestablishment of the "Tartar yoke" in the late 14th century, both the political centre and the predominant dialect in European Russia came to be based in Moscow. A scientific consensus exists that Russian and Ruthenian had definitely become distinct by this time at t
The political reforms of Peter the Great were accompanied by a reform of the alphabet, and achieved their goal of secularization and modernization. Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. Most of the modern naval vocabulary, for example
The modern phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic but underwent considerable innovation in the early historical period before it was largely settled by about 1400.
The Russian language is among the top fifteen most spoken languages in the United States, and is one of the most spoken Slavic and European languages in the country. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, many Russians have migrated to the United States and brought the language with them. Most Russian speakers in the United States today are Russian Jews. According to the 2010 United States Census the number of Russian speakers was 854,955, which made Russian the 12th most spoken language in
Russian Wikipedia The Russian Wikipedia ( Russian: Русская Википедия) is the Russian-language edition of Wikipedia. This edition was started in May 2001. It currently has about 1,845,000 articles.  It is currently the 7th largest edition.  References [ change | change source] ↑ Statistics at Russian Wikipedia