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    • Irish orthography - Wikipedia
      • Irish orthography is very etymological which can allow the same written form to result in multiple dialectal pronunciations and remain regular, e.g. ceann ("head") may result in [cɑun̪ˠ], [cɑːn̪ˠ], [can̪ˠ]. A spelling reform in the mid-20th century strengthened grapheme to phoneme correspondence by eliminating inter-dialectal silent letters.
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_orthography
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  2. Irish orthography is very etymological which can allow the same written form to result in multiple dialectal pronunciations and remain regular, e.g. ceann ("head") may result in [cɑun̪ˠ], [cɑːn̪ˠ], [can̪ˠ]. A spelling reform in the mid-20th century strengthened grapheme to phoneme correspondence by eliminating inter-dialectal silent letters.

    • Alphabet
    • Consonants
    • Vowels
    • Epenthetic Vowel
    • Special pronunciations in Verb Forms
    • Diacritics
    • Punctuation
    • Capitalisation
    • Abbreviations
    • Spelling Reform

    The alphabet now used for writing the Irish language consists of the following letters of the Latin script, whether written in Roman hand or Gaelic hand: 1. a á b c d e é f g h i í l m n o ó p r s t u ú; The acute accent over the vowels is ignored for purposes of alphabetization. Modern loanwords also make use of j k q v w x y z. Of these, v is the...

    The consonant letters generally correspond to the consonant phonemes as shown in this table. See Irish phonology for an explanation of the symbols used and Irish initial mutations for an explanation of eclipsis. In most cases, consonants are "broad" (velarised) when the nearest vowel letter is one of a, o, u and "slender" (palatalised) when the nea...

    In spite of the complex chart below, pronunciation of vowels in Irish is mostly predictable from a few simple rules: 1. Fadavowels (á, é, í, ó, ú) are always pronounced. 2. Vowels on either side of a fada vowel are silent. They are present only to satisfy the "caol le caol agus leathan le leathan" ("slender with slender and broad with broad") rule....

    In a sequence of short vowel + /l, r, n/ + labial or velar consonant an unwritten /ə/ gets pronounced between the /l, r, n/and the following consonant: 1. gorm /ˈɡɔɾˠəmˠ/"blue" 2. dearg /ˈdʲaɾˠəɡ/"red" 3. dorcha /ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəxə/"dark" 4. ainm /ˈanʲəmʲ/"name" 5. seanchaí /ˈʃan̪ˠəxiː/"storyteller" 6. leanbh /ˈlʲan̪ˠəw/"child" 7. colm /ˈkɔl̪ˠəm/"dove" The...

    In verbforms, some letters and letter combinations are pronounced differently from elsewhere. In the imperfect, conditional, and imperative, -dh is pronounced /tʲ/ before a pronoun beginning with s-: 1. mholadh sé /ˈwɔl̪ˠətʲ ʃeː/"he used to praise" 2. bheannódh sibh /ˈvʲan̪ˠoːtʲ ʃɪvʲ/"you (pl.) would bless" 3. osclaíodh sí /ˈɔsˠkl̪ˠiːtʲ ʃiː/"let he...

    Irish spelling makes use today of only one diacritic, and formerly used a second. The acute accent (Irish: síneadh fada "long sign") is used to indicate a long vowel, as in bád /bˠaːd̪ˠ/"boat". However, there are some circumstances under which a long vowel is not indicated by an acute accent, namely: 1. before rd, rl, rn, rr, for example ard /aːɾˠd...

    In general, punctuation marks are used in Irish much as they are in English. One punctuation mark worth noting is the Tironian et ⁊ which is generally used to abbreviate the word agus "and", much as the ampersand is generally used to abbreviate the word andin English. The hyphen (Irish: fleiscín) is used in Irish after the letters t and n when thes...

    Capitalisation rules are similar to English. However, a prefix letter remains in lowercase when the base initial is capitalised (an tSín "China"). For text written in all caps, the prefix letter is often kept in lowercase, or small caps (STAIR NA HÉIREANN "THE HISTORY OF IRELAND").[2] An initial capital is used for:[3] 1. The first word of a senten...

    Irish has a number of abbreviations, most of which, like lch. for leathanach ("p."/"page") and m.sh. for mar shampla ("e.g."/"for example") are straightforward. Two that may require explanation are .i. (which begins and ends with a full stop) for eadhon ("i.e."/"that is") and ⁊rl. or srl. for agus araile("etc."/"and so forth").

    The literary Classical Irish which survived till the 17th century was already archaic and its spelling reflected that; Theobald Stapleton's 1639 catechism was a first attempt at simplification.[7] The classical spelling represented a dialect continuum including distinctions which had been lost in all surviving dialects by the Gaelic revival of the ...

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    The First Irish Translation of the New Testament begun by Nicholas Walsh, Bishop of Ossory until his demise in 1587; was continued by his Assistant John Kearney with Dr. Nehemiah Donnellan, Archbishop of Tuam. It was finally completed by Uiliam Ó ‘Domhnaill (who had succeeded Bishop Donnellan) then published during 1602. The work of the translation...

    Several Dictionaries were published over the years: from ‘The Royal Dictionary’ of 1699 & 1729 by Abel Boyer to The English – Irish Dictionary of Begley & Mc Curtain in 1732. John O ‘Brien published ‘Foclóir Gaoidhilge – sags – béarla Or’ in 1768. An English – Irish Edition of 1814 by Thaddaeus Connellan was produced. During 1855 an English – Irish...

    The following were old spellings criticized by T. F. O ‘Reilly with their simplifications from old Spelling to New Spelling: Beirbhiughadh toBeiriú, Imthighthe toImithe, FIrish Dialects past & present; with Chapters on Scottish & Manx’, 1932 (Brown & Nolan Dublin) waaghbháil toFáil, Urradhas toUrrús also Filidheacht toFilíocht.His publication ‘s ex...

    Eamon de Valera, President of the Executive Council from the 1932 Election insisted that policy reverted to older spelling which was then used for the 1937 Constitution. During 1941 he decided to publish a ‘popular’ Edition of the Constitution. De Valera also established an expert Committee that failed to agree to Recommendations; instead the Oirea...

    The Oireachtas’s own Translation Service during 1945 printed a Booklet ‘Litiúna Gailge: Lámhleabhar an Chaighdeain Oifigiúil.’ (Published in Early Modern History1500 – 1700 issue 5 Septtember – October 2012 Vol 20) That Booklet was expanded during 1947 then republished as ‘An Caighdheán Oifigiúi’ in 1959, combined with a Standard Graminer of 1953. ...

    The Grammar of early Modern Irish was initially presented in a series of grammatical Tracts. These were edited & published by Osborn Bergin as a supplement to Éiru between 1916 to 1955. [xxii] Irish has a Case System like Latin or German. It has four cases showing Functions of nouns or pronouns in a sentence. In Phonology it exhibits initial ‘sandi...

    Presently there are three main dialects in the Irish Language: Munster (An Mhumháin), Connnacht (Connachta) also Ulster (Ulaidh). The Munster Dialect is spoken mainly in Kerry (Ciarraí) plus Muskerry (Múscraí) in the Western part of Cork (Contae Chorcai). The Connacht Dialect is spoken mainly in Connamara (Conamara), the Aran Islands (Oiléain) also...

    In Modern Irish just a few sounds are not found in English Dialects. It has an Unique Spelling System. Although it may appear Complicated it is in fact more Regular that English Spelling. With the exception of a few Common Words: that have an Unstressed Prefix – all words are sharply Accented on the Final Syllable. [xxv] Gaelic Irish Type today wit...

  3. www.liquisearch.com › irish_language › orthographyIrish Language - Orthography

    Orthography. Modern Irish typically uses the ISO basic Latin alphabet without the letters j,k,q,w,x,y,z, but with the addition of one diacritic sign, the acute accent ( á é í ó ú ), known in Irish as the síneadh fada "long mark", plural sínte fada. (The letter v has been naturalised into the language, although it is not part of the traditional alphabet, and is pronounced the same as "bh".)

  4. nualeargais.ie › gnag › orthoIrish Orthography

    The orthography of Irish is at first a bit confusing. In addition, the pronunciation and written Irish are not identical, especially the pronunciation varies from dialect to dialect. Although, the order in which letters appear is not random, but follows specific rules.

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