- Grand Prince Alexander or Aleksandr Mikhailovich ( Russian: Александр Михайлович Тверской; 7 October 1301 – 29 October 1339) was a Prince of Tver as Alexander I and Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal as Alexander II. His rule was marked by the Tver Uprising in 1327.
- 7 October 1301
- Anastasia of Halych
- 29 October 1339 (aged 38)
- Rurik Dynasty
Grand Prince Alexander or Aleksandr Mikhailovich (Russian: Александр Михайлович Тверской; 7 October 1301 – 29 October 1339) was a Prince of Tver as Alexander I and Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal as Alexander II. Aleksandr was a second son of Prince Mikhail of Tver by his wife, Anna of Kashin...
- (1301-10-07)7 October 1301
- Anastasia of Halych
- 29 October 1339(1339-10-29) (aged 38)
Grand Prince Aleksandr Mikhailovich (Russian: Александр Михайлович Тверской; 7 October 1301 – 29 October 1339) was a Prince of Tver as Alexander I and Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal as Alexander II. Life . Aleksandr was a second son of Prince Mikhail of Tver by his wife, Anna of Kashin.
- 7 October 1301
- Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver (1271-1318)
- 29 October 1339
- Anna Dmitriyevna of Kashin (c1280-1368)
Grand Prince Alexander or Aleksandr Mikhailovich (Александр Михайлович Тверской; 7 October 1301 – 29 October 1339) was a Prince of Tver as Alexander I and Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal as Alexander II.
Mikhail Yaroslavich (Russian: Михаил Ярославич) (1271 – 22 November 1318) was a Prince of Tver (from 1285) who ruled as Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1304 until 1314 and again from 1315–1318. He was canonized and counted among the saints of the Russian Orthodox Church.
- Anna Dmitriyevna of Kashin (c1280-1368)
- Kseniya Yuryevna of Tarusa (c1246-1312)
- Prince of Tver Grand Prince of Vladimir
Grand Prince Alexander or Aleksandr Mikhailovich (Russian: Александр Михайлович Тверской) Prince of Tver as Alexander I and Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal as Alexander II. Born: 7 October 1301 Died: 29 October 1339. Father: Mikhail of Tver. Mother: Anna of Kashin. Spouse: Anastasia of Halych.
Aleksandr II MIKHAILOVICH (Prince) of TVER (& Vladimir)
Aleksandr Mikhailovich struggled against the increasing power of Grand Prince Ivan Kalita of Moscow. During the uprising of the people of Tver’ in 1327 against the Tatar baskak (khan’s representative and tax collector) Choi-Khan, he attempted to restrain the insurgents; however, he was charged by the khan with duplicity and deprived of his ...
Grand Prince Alexander or Aleksandr Mikhailovich (Russian: Александр Михайлович Тверской) (7 October 1301 – 29 October 1339) was a Prince of Tver as Aleksandr I and Grand prince of Vladimir as...
- Struggle Between Moscow and Tver: Yury and Mikhail
- Struggle Between Tver and Moscow: Aleksandr Mikhailovich and Ivan Kalita
- Relocation of The Seat of The Metropolitan
- Foundation of The Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod Grand Principality
- Black Death
- Rise of Lithuania
- Troubles in The Horde
- War Between Moscow and Lithuania
- St Sergius of Radonezh and The Troitse-Sergieva Lavra
- The Battle of Kulikovo Field
'Baskaki - Tatar Tribute Collectors' by Sergey Ivanov When Grand Prince Andrey III of Vladimir (Andrey Gorodetsky) died in 1304, the two up-and-coming Rus principalities of Moscow and Tver vied to be named grand prince of Vladimir by the khan. Yury Danilovich succeed his father Daniil in Moscow in 1303, while Tver was ruled by Mikhail Yaroslavich (son of Grand Prince Yaroslav III). Both princes went to the Golden Horde to plead their cases to the khan as to whom should be appointed grand prince of Vladimir. Khan Tokhta supported Mikhail who presumably promised the khan more tribute. In 1308 Mikhail led a campaign against Moscow to punish his competition but could not breach the kremlin. The two princes also sought influence over Novgorod, understanding full well that its riches were essential in winning the khan's favour. Mikhail of Tver originally managed to have himself elected prince of Novgorod by blockading the Novgorodian city of Torzhok, but Yury of Moscow outmanoeuvred Mikha...
With the death of both the Grand Prince Dmitry the Terrible Eyes of Tver and Grand Prince Yury Danilovich of Moscow in 1325, Dmitry's brother Aleksandr Mikhailovich was made grand prince of Vladimir, Novgorod and Tver. In Moscow, Yury was succeeded by his brother Ivan Danilovich, later known as Ivan Kalita - Ivan the Moneybags – due to his wealth. Kalita used the wealth of Moscow to bring other principalities under Moscow’s control by granting loans. Such principalities to fall under Kalita’s influence include the Belozersk, Dmitrov, Galich, Kostroma and Uglich principalities. Grand Prince Aleksandr Mikhailovich of Tver may have got the upper hand over Kalita at first by being named grand prince of Vladimir but his reign faced a crisis in 1327, which Kalita made good use of. In the summer of 1327 Schelkan (sometimes spelled Cholkhan) a cousin of Khan Uzbek, arrived in Tver as the khan’s representative. Schelkan began tormenting the local population who eventually rose up against him...
In 1305 Metropolitan Maximus (Maksim) of Kiev and All Rus died. Back in 1299 Maximus moved his official seat from Kiev to Vladimir, demonstrating the shift of the centre of Rus from the south-west to the north-east. The title though remained Metropolitan of Kiev and All Rus and the metropolitan was supposed to be responsible for all Orthodox Christians in Rus, including those in Galicia, which became a kingdom in 1253, and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania which had gained control of the former Polotsk Principality after the Mongol Invasion. The new metropolitan was nominated by the king of Galicia and his nominee of Peter (Pyotr) was appointed metropolitan in 1308 by the patriarch in Constantinople. 'The Moscow Kremlin under Ivan Kalita' by Apollinary Vasnetsov The princes of Moscow understood the influence the metropolitan had over Rus affairs. Whereas the previous metropolitan was a supporter of Tver, the favour of Metropolitan Peter was quickly won by Moscow. So much so that in 1325...
After the fall from grace of Aleksandr of Tver, Uzbek Khan named Prince Aleksandr Vasilievich of Suzdal (the grandson of Grand Prince Andrey II) grand prince of Vladimir in 1328. Ivan Kalita of Moscow was named Aleksandr's co-ruler. Aleksandr though died in 1331 leaving Kalita as the sole grand prince of Vladimir. Kalita died in 1341 but was successful in having his son Semyon named as his successor as grand prince of Vladimir. At the same time the territories of Nizhny Novgorod and Gorodets were transferred to the Suzdal Principality, which was now ruled by Konstantin Vasilievich. In 1350 Konstantin moved the capital from Suzdal to Nizhni Novgorod, thereby founding the Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod Grand Principality. Upon his death in 1355 he divided the principality between his sons.
In the 1330s a plague spread across Central Asia along the Silk Road and by the 1340 soldiers of the Golden Horde had become infected with what has now become known as the Black Death. In 1347 it is believed that Khan Dzhanibek of the Golden Horde used a primitive form of chemical warfare during the siege of the city of Kaffa (now known as Feodosia) in the Crimea. Infected corpses were catapulted into the fortified city. Fleeing Genoese traders then took the plague to Sicily from where it struck Western Europe. The Black Death then made its way across Northern and Eastern Europe, reaching Pskov and Novgorod in 1352. In 1353 Moscow succumbed to the plague which proved its famous disregard for rank: Grand Prince Semyon, two of his sons, his brother Andrey of Serpukhov and Metropolitan Theognostus all lost their lives. Semyon was succeeded by his brother Ivan Ivanovich (Ivan II). Other Rus principalities were also devastated by the plague.
During the reign of Grand Duke Gediminas of Lithuania (reigned 1316-1341), the territory of Lithuania was vastly expanded at the expense of former territories of Kievan Rus. Lithuania had already gain control of the former Polotsk Principality (modern day Belarus) after the Mongol Conquest and Gediminas added to this the Kiev Principality in the 1320s after the Battle on the Irpin River and Galicia in 1323 thanks to the marriage of Gediminas' son Liubartas to the daughter of King Andrey II of Galicia. Gediminas' son Algirdas (known as Olgerd in Russian) (reigned 1345-1377) continued his father's success and for a period became the major player in the region at the expense of Moscow, which was ruled by the meek Ivan II, and even the Golden Horde, which was undergoing a period of crisis. In 1356 Algirdas added the remnants of the former Chernigov Principality (now centred around Bryansk) into his realm and some parts of the Smolensk Principality. In addition Algirdas also gained influ...
In 1357 Khan Dzhanibek (Jani Beg) died leaving his son Berdibek as his successor. Chronicles differ on the cause of Dzhanibek's death, some say he died of illness, while some say he was assassinated. The assassination of Berdibek however is not questioned. He was killed by his brother Kulpa (Qulpa) in 1359 who took his place as khan. This marks the beginning of a turbulent period for the Horde. A daughter of Berdibek was married to a Tatar commander (temnik) called Mamai, who was in charge of the Crimea and the area of the Horde to the west of the Volga. Mamai promptly rose up against Kulpa. Not being a descendent of Gengis Khan himself Mamai was barred from becoming Khan and so he installed puppet khans in his territory, which is sometimes referred to as the White Horde or the Mamaeva Horde, who acted as rivals to the khans in the capital of the Golden Horde which was by this time the city of New Sarai or Sarai-Berke. The khans in Sarai-Berke changed rapidly, practically one a year...
Moscow was able to regain some influence after the death of Ivan II in 1359. Ivan II died when his son Dmitry Ivanovich (later known as Dmitry Donskoy) was just a child and so Metropolitan Alexius served as his regent and spiritual tutor. Not content with making a child grand prince, Khan Naurus Beg (Nawruz Beg), named Prince Dmitry Konstantinovich of Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod grand prince of Vladimir. Alexius understood the importance of a united House of Moscow and also served as tutor to Dmitry's cousin Prince Vladimir Andreevich of Serpukhov, teaching him to always respect his more senior cousin. Alexius also continued the standard Moscow policy of appeasing the Tatars, whereas Moscow's traditional rival of Tver had turned towards Lithuania against the Golden Horde. Alexius also gain special recognition in the Horde after successfully treating the eye problems of Taidula - the widow of Khan Uzbek. Making use of the turmoil in the Horde, Dmitry was able to gain the patent to rule as...
'Labour of Sergius of Radonezh' by Mikhail Nesterov In 1337 a young monk by the name of Varfolomey left his monastery to found a new community away from civilisation in a deep forest. Varfolomey built a small wooden church and was then tonsured taking the name of Sergy (Sergius). Over the next years Sergius was joined by disciples and a charter was adopted for their community. Later these disciples left the community to found new monasteries across the country. Sergius’ reputation as a holy man also grew to such a point that he was visited by many pilgrims and Metropolitan Alexius even tried to persuade him to agree to be his successor as metropolitan. The community which Sergius founded grew into the Troitse-Sergieva Lavra in Sergiev Posad which is today one of Russia’s most important spiritual centres. Sergius was also later canonised as St Sergius of Radonezh and is now probably Russia’s most revered native saints.
Moscow’s may have reasserted dominance over its neighbouring principalities, but Mamai remembered how Dmitry of Moscow had blatantly disregarded his appointment of Mikhail Aleksandrovich of Tver as grand prince of Vladimir. In 1376 Mamai sent his commander Begich against Dmitry to put Moscow back in its place as a Tatar vassal. Dmitry led an army to meet the Tatars and defeated them at the Battle of the River Vozha. In response Mamai was forced to lead a punitive campaign against the rebellious Russian prince himself in 1380. Not only was Mamai worried by Dmitry’s growing independence, but he was also fighting for his position in the Golden Horde against the growing power of the new khan Tokhtamysh (Tuqtamış) who was supported by Tamerlane (Timur the Lame), the greatest Mongol-Tatar warlord of the era. 'Kulikovo Field' by Ilya Glazunov Dmitry immediately began raising an army to meet Mamai in battle and Kolomna was set as the gathering point. Before setting out, Dmitry is believed t...