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  1. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Frederick_III,_Holy_Roman

    Frederick III was Holy Roman emperor from 1452 until his death. He was the fourth king and first emperor of the House of Habsburg. He was the penultimate emperor to be crowned by the pope, and the last to be crowned in Rome. Prior to his imperial coronation, he was duke of the Inner Austrian lands of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola from 1424, and also acted as regent over the Duchy of Austria from 1439. He was elected and crowned King of Germany in 1440. He was the longest-reigning German monarch

    • Eleanor of Portugal

      Eleanor of Portugal (18 September 1434 – 3 September 1467)...

    • Early life

      Born at the Tyrolean residence of Innsbruck in 1415,...

    • Personality

      Frederick's style of rulership was marked by hesitation and...

    • Emperor

      Frederick's political initiatives were hardly bold, but they...

    • Marriage and children

      Frederick had five children from his marriage with Eleanor...

    • Death

      In his last years Friedrich remained in the region on the...

  2. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor — Wikipedia Republished ...

    wiki2.org › en › Frederick_III,_Holy_Roman_Emperor
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    Born at the Ty­rolean res­i­dence of Inns­bruck in 1415, Fred­er­ick was the el­dest son of the Inner Aus­trian duke Ernest the Iron, a mem­ber of the Leopoldian line of the Hab­s­burg dy­nasty, and his sec­ond wife Cym­bur­gis of Maso­via. Ac­cord­ing to the 1379 Treaty of Neu­berg, the Leopol­din­ian branch ruled over the duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, or what was re­ferred to as Inner Aus­tria. Only three of Fred­er­ick's eight sib­lings sur­vived child­hood: his younger brother Al­bert (later to be Al­bert VI, arch­duke of Aus­tria), and his sis­ters Mar­garet (later the elec­tress of Sax­ony) and Cather­ine. In 1424, nine-year-old Fred­er­ick's fa­ther died, mak­ing Fred­er­ick the duke of Inner Aus­tria, as Fred­er­ick V, with his uncle, Duke Fred­er­ick IV of Tyrol, act­ing as re­gent. From 1431, Fred­er­ick tried to ob­tain ma­jor­ity (to be de­clared "of age", and thus al­lowed to rule) but for sev­eral years was de­nied by his rel­a­tives. Fi­nally, in 1435, Al...

    Fred­er­ick's style of ruler­ship was marked by hes­i­ta­tion and a slug­gish pace of de­ci­sion mak­ing. The Ital­ian hu­man­ist Enea Sil­vio Pic­colo­mini, later Pope Pius II, who at one time worked at Fred­er­ick's court, de­scribed the Em­peror as a per­son who wanted to con­quer the world while re­main­ing seated. Al­though this was re­garded as a char­ac­ter flaw in older aca­d­e­mic re­search, his de­lay­ing tac­tics are now viewed as a means of cop­ing with po­lit­i­cal chal­lenges in far-flung ter­ri­to­r­ial pos­ses­sions. Fred­er­ick is cred­ited with hav­ing the abil­ity to sit out dif­fi­cult po­lit­i­cal sit­u­a­tions patiently. Ac­cord­ing to con­tem­po­rary ac­counts, Fred­er­ick had dif­fi­cul­ties de­vel­op­ing emo­tional close­ness to other per­sons, in­clud­ing his chil­dren and wife Eleanor. In gen­eral, Fred­er­ick kept him­self away from women, the rea­sons for which are not known. As Fred­er­ick was rather dis­tant to his fam­ily, Eleanor had a great in­flu­e...

    Fred­er­ick's po­lit­i­cal ini­tia­tives were hardly bold, but they were still suc­cess­ful. Fred­er­ick III was crowned Holy Roman Em­peror in 1452, fol­low­ing the death of his fa­ther. His as­cen­sion to the role of em­peror came with the stip­u­la­tion that should the pre­vi­ous queen give birth to a male heir, Fred­er­ick would be­come his guardian. When the queen gave birth to Ladis­laus the Posthu­mous, as ac­cord­ing to the stip­u­la­tions, Fred­er­ick took on his guardianship. This led to con­flicts be­tween Fred­er­ick and other mem­bers of the royal fam­ily and no­bil­ity. His first major op­po­nent was his brother Al­bert VI, who chal­lenged his rule. He did not man­age to win a sin­gle con­flict on the bat­tle­field against him, and thus re­sorted to more sub­tle means. He held his sec­ond cousin once re­moved Ladis­laus the Posthu­mous, the ruler of the Arch­duchy of Aus­tria, Hun­gary and Bo­hemia, (born in 1440) as a pris­oner and at­tempted to ex­tend his guardian­s...

    Fred­er­ick had five chil­dren from his mar­riage with Eleanor of Por­tu­gal: 1. Christoph (1455–1456) 2. Maximilian(1459–1519), Holy Roman Emperor, married 1. 1477 Mary of Burgundy (1457–1482), daughter of Duke of Burgundy Charles the Bold 2. 1494 Bianca Maria Sforza (1472–1510), daughter of Duke of Milan Galeazzo Maria Sforza 1. Helene (1460–1462) 2. Kunigunde (1465–1520), married 1487 Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria 3. Johannes (1466–1467) For the last 10 years of Fred­er­ick's life, he and Max­i­m­il­ian ruled jointly.

    In his last years Friedrich re­mained in the re­gion on the Danube, in Vi­enna and in Linz. In 1492 he was elected Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Since Feb­ru­ary 1493, Fred­er­ick's health de­te­ri­o­rated in­creas­ingly. In the Lent of 1493, Friedrich's per­sonal physi­cians di­ag­nosed Kaiser in the left leg as a symp­tom, usu­ally re­ferred to as age-burn­ing, in the re­search lit­er­a­ture, which ac­cord­ing to cur­rent med­ical ter­mi­nol­ogy is con­sid­ered to be the re­sult of ar­te­rioscle­ro­sis. On 8 June 1493 he was am­pu­tated under the di­rec­tion of the sur­geon Hans Seyff in the Linz cas­tle of the af­fected area of the leg. This leg am­pu­ta­tion is con­sid­ered one of the most fa­mous and best-doc­u­mented sur­gi­cal pro­ce­dures of the en­tire Mid­dle Ages. Al­though Fred­er­ick ini­tially sur­vived the pro­ce­dure well, he died on 19 Au­gust 1493 in Linz at the age of 77. The con­tem­po­raries cited as the cause of death the con­se­quences of leg am­pu...

    Heinig, Paul-Joachim. "The Court of Emperor Frederick III". In Princes Patronage and the Nobility: The Court at the Beginning of the Modern Age, cc. 1450-1650. Edited by Ronald G. Asch and Adolf M....
    Langmaier, Konstantin M. Erzherzog Albrecht VI. von Österreich (1418–1463), Ein Fürst im Spannungsfeld von Dynastie, Regionen und Reich (Forschungen zur Kaiser- und Papstgeschichte des Mittelalters...
    Literature by and about Friedrich III. in the German National Librarycatalogue
    Works by and about Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor in the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek(German Digital Library)
    Entry about Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor in the database Gedächtnis des Landes on the history of the state of Lower Austria (Lower Austria Museum)
  3. Talk:Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Talk:Frederick_III,_Holy

    Emperor. The second line of the section on his being Holy Roman Emperor says "Frederick III was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1452, following the death of his father." I believe this to be in error. He became Holy Roman Emperor in 1452, but his father died in 1424.

  4. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikimedia Commons

    commons.wikimedia.org › wiki › Frederick_III

    August 1493 in Linz) war König (ab 1440) und Kaiser (1452-1493) des Heiligen Römischen Reiches. English: Frederick III Habsburg (1415-1493) became Frederick V, archduke of Austria in 1424. He acceded as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1440 and was married to Eleanore of Portugal.

  5. Category:Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikimedia

    commons.wikimedia.org › wiki › Category:Frederick

    Apr 07, 2020 · Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. Austrian archduke and duke. Retrat de Frederic III, de Hans Burgkmair. Upload media. Wikipedia. Name in native language. Friedrich III. Date of birth. 21 September 1415.

  6. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor - Historipedia Official Wiki

    historipediaofficial.wikia.org › wiki › Frederick
    • Early Life
    • Personality
    • Emperor
    • Marriage and Children
    • Death
    • Sources
    • External Links

    Born at the Tyrolean residence of Innsbruck in 1415, Frederick was the eldest son of the Inner Austrian duke Ernest the Iron, a member of the Leopoldian line of the Habsburg dynasty, and his second wife Cymburgis of Masovia. According to the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, the Leopoldinian branch ruled over the duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, or what was referred to as Inner Austria. Only three of Frederick's eight siblings survived childhood: his younger brother Albert (later to be Albert VI, archduke of Austria), and his sisters Margaret (later the electress of Saxony) and Catherine. In 1424, nine-year-old Frederick's father died, making Frederick the duke of Inner Austria, as Frederick V, with his uncle, Duke Frederick IV of Tyrol, acting as regent. From 1431, Frederick tried to obtain majority (to be declared "of age", and thus allowed to rule) but for several years was denied by his relatives. Finally, in 1435, Albert V, duke of Austria (later Albert II, the king of Germany)...

    Frederick's style of rulership was marked by hesitation and a sluggish pace of decision making. The Italian humanist Enea Silvio Piccolomini, later Pope Pius II, who at one time worked at Frederick's court, described the Emperor as a person who wanted to conquer the world while remaining seated. Although this was regarded as a character flaw in older academic research, his delaying tactics are now viewed as a means of coping with political challenges in far-flung territorial possessions. Frederick is credited with having the ability to sit out difficult political situations patiently. According to contemporary accounts, Frederick had difficulties developing emotional closeness to other persons, including his children and wife Eleanor. In general, Frederick kept himself away from women, the reasons for which are not known. As Frederick was rather distant to his family, Eleanor had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick's children, and she therefore played an impo...

    Frederick's political initiatives were hardly bold, but they were still successful. His first major opponent was his brother Albert VI, who challenged his rule. He did not manage to win a single conflict on the battlefield against him, and thus resorted to more subtle means. He held his second cousin once removed Ladislaus the Posthumous, the ruler of the Archduchy of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia, (born in 1440) as a prisoner and attempted to extend his guardianship over him in perpetuity to maintain his control over Lower Austria. Ladislaus was freed in 1452 by the Lower Austrian estates. He acted similarly towards his first cousin Sigismund of the Tyrolian line of the Habsburg family. Despite those efforts, he failed to gain control over Hungary and Bohemia in the Bohemian–Hungarian War (1468–78) and was even defeated in the Austrian–Hungarian War (1477–88) by the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus in 1485, who managed to maintain residence in Vienna until his death five years later...

    Frederick had five children from his marriage with Eleanor of Portugal: 1. Christoph (1455–1456) 2. Maximilian(1459–1519), Holy Roman Emperor, married 1. 1477 Mary of Burgundy (1457–1482), daughter of Duke of Burgundy Charles the Bold 2. 1494 Bianca Maria Sforza (1472–1510), daughter of Duke of Milan Galeazzo Maria Sforza 1. Helene (1460–1462) 2. Kunigunde (1465–1520), married 1487 Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria 3. Johannes (1466–1467) For the last 10 years of Frederick's life, he and Maximilian ruled jointly.

    Frederick III died in 1493, aged 77, at Linz. His left foot had become gangrenous, and was amputated. He survived this procedure, but continued infection prompted amputation of his left leg, after which he was said to have bled to death. His grave, built by Nikolaus Gerhaert von Leyden, in St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, is one of the most important works of sculptural art of the late Middle Ages. (His amputated leg was buried with him.) The heavily adorned tomb was not completed until 1513, two decades after Frederick's death, and has survived in its original condition.

    Heinig, Paul-Joachim. "The Court of Emperor Frederick III". In Princes Patronage and the Nobility: The Court at the Beginning of the Modern Age, cc. 1450-1650. Edited by Ronald G. Asch and Adolf M....

    Template:CommonscatTemplate:Wikisource 1. Template:DNB-Portal 2. Template:DDB 3. Template:Geschichtsquellen Person 4. Template:Nömuseum 5. Database "Sources on the Judiciary of Emperor Frederick III" (Quellen zur Gerichtsbarkeit Kaiser Friedrichs III. (1440–1493) 6. Joachim Laczny, Friedrich III. (1440–1493) auf Reisen. Die Erstellung des Itinerars eines spätmittelalterlichen Herrschers unter Anwendung eines historisch-Geographischen Informationssystems (his-GIS). 7. WDR-Zeitzeichensendung 1415 - Der Geburtstag von Kaiser Friedrich III.

  7. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor - WikiVisually

    wikivisually.com › wiki › Frederick_III,_Holy_Roman
    • Early Life
    • Personality
    • Emperor
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    Born at the Tyrolean residence of Innsbruck in 1415, Frederick was the eldest son of the Inner Austrian duke Ernest the Iron, a member of the Leopoldian line of the Habsburg dynasty, and his second wife Cymburgis of Masovia. According to the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, the Leopoldinian branch ruled over the duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, or what was referred to as Inner Austria. Only three of Frederick's eight siblings survived childhood: his younger brother Albert (later to be Albert VI, archduke of Austria), and his sisters Margaret (later the electress of Saxony) and Catherine. In 1424, nine-year-old Frederick's father died, making Frederick the duke of Inner Austria, as Frederick V, with his uncle, Duke Frederick IV of Tyrol, acting as regent. From 1431, Frederick tried to obtain majority (to be declared "of age", and thus allowed to rule) but for several years was denied by his relatives. Finally, in 1435, Albert V, duke of Austria (later Albert II, the king of Germany)...

    Frederick's style of rulership was marked by hesitation and a sluggish pace of decision making. The Italian humanist Enea Silvio Piccolomini, later Pope Pius II, who at one time worked at Frederick's court, described the Emperor as a person who wanted to conquer the world while remaining seated. Although this was regarded as a character flaw in older academic research, his delaying tactics are now viewed as a means of coping with political challenges in far-flung territorial possessions. Frederick is credited with having the ability to sit out difficult political situations patiently. According to contemporary accounts, Frederick had difficulties developing emotional closeness to other persons, including his children and wife Eleanor. In general, Frederick kept himself away from women, the reasons for which are not known. As Frederick was rather distant to his family, Eleanor had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick's children, and she therefore played an impo...

    Frederick's political initiatives were hardly bold, but they were still successful. Frederick III was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1452, following the death of his father. His ascension to the role of emperor came with the stipulation that should the previous queen give birth to a male heir, Frederick would become his guardian. When the queen gave birth to Ladislaus the Posthumous, as according to the stipulations, Frederick took on his guardianship. This led to conflicts between Frederick and other members of the royal family and nobility. His first major opponent was his brother Albert VI, who challenged his rule. He did not manage to win a single conflict on the battlefield against him, and thus resorted to more subtle means. He held his second cousin once removed Ladislaus the Posthumous, the ruler of the Archduchy of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia, (born in 1440) as a prisoner and attempted to extend his guardianship over him in perpetuity to maintain his control over Lower Aust...

    Frederick had five children from his marriage with Eleanor of Portugal: 1. Christoph (1455–1456) 2. Maximilian(1459–1519), Holy Roman Emperor, married 1. 1477 Mary of Burgundy (1457–1482), daughter of Duke of Burgundy Charles the Bold 2. 1494 Bianca Maria Sforza (1472–1510), daughter of Duke of Milan Galeazzo Maria Sforza 1. Helene (1460–1462) 2. Kunigunde (1465–1520), married 1487 Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria 3. Johannes (1466–1467) For the last 10 years of Frederick's life, he and Maximilian ruled jointly.

    In his last years Friedrich remained in the region on the Danube, in Vienna and in Linz. In 1492 he was elected Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Since February 1493, Frederick's health deteriorated increasingly. In the Lent of 1493, Friedrich's personal physicians diagnosed Kaiser in the left leg as a symptom, usually referred to as age-burning, in the research literature, which according to current medical terminology is considered to be the result of arteriosclerosis. On 8 June 1493 he was amputated under the direction of the surgeon Hans Seyff in the Linz castle of the affected area of the leg. This leg amputation is considered one of the most famous and best-documented surgical procedures of the entire Middle Ages. Although Frederick initially survived the procedure well, he died on 19 August 1493 in Linz at the age of 77. The contemporaries cited as the cause of death the consequences of leg amputation, senility or rapid diarrhea caused by melon consumption. His bowels...

    Heinig, Paul-Joachim. "The Court of Emperor Frederick III". In Princes Patronage and the Nobility: The Court at the Beginning of the Modern Age, cc. 1450-1650. Edited by Ronald G. Asch and Adolf M....
    Langmaier, Konstantin M. Erzherzog Albrecht VI. von Österreich (1418–1463), Ein Fürst im Spannungsfeld von Dynastie, Regionen und Reich (Forschungen zur Kaiser- und Papstgeschichte des Mittelalters...
    Literature by and about Friedrich III. in the German National Librarycatalogue
    Works by and about Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor in the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek(German Digital Library)
    Entry about Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor in the database Gedächtnis des Landes on the history of the state of Lower Austria (Lower Austria Museum)
  8. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Frederick_II,_Holy_Roman

    Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225. He was the son of emperor Henry VI of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and of Constance, heiress to the Norman kings of Sicily . Arms of the House of Hohenstaufen.

  9. Frederick III, Haly Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    sco.wikipedia.org › wiki › Frederick_III,_Haly_Roman

    Frederick III, Haly Roman Emperor Frae Wikipedia, the free beuk o knawledge Frederick III (21 September 1415 – 19 August 1493), cried the Peacefu, wis Haly Roman Emperor frae 1452 till his daoth, the first emperor o the Hoose o Habsburg.

    • 19 Mairch 1452
    • Sigismund
    • 19 Mairch 1452 – 19 August 1493
    • Maximilian I
  10. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › Frederick_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor
    • Biography
    • Frederick and The Justinian Code
    • Economic Policy
    • Charismatic Leader
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    • Children
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    Early life

    Frederick was born in mid-December 1122 in Haguenau, to Frederick II, Duke of Swabia and Judith of Bavaria. He learned to ride, hunt and use weapons, but could neither read nor write, and was also unable to speak the Latin language. Later on, he took part in the Hoftage during the reign of his uncle, King Conrad III, in 1141 in Strasbourg, 1142 in Konstanz, 1143 in Ulm, 1144 in Würzburg and 1145 in Worms.

    Second Crusade

    In early 1147, Frederick joined the Second Crusade. His uncle, King Conrad III, had taken the crusader vow in public on 28 December 1146. Frederick's father strongly objected to his son's crusade. According to Otto of Freising, the duke berated his brother, Conrad III, for permitting his son to go. The elder Frederick, who was dying, expected his son to look after his widow and young half-brother. Perhaps in preparation for his crusade, Frederick married Adelaide of Vohburg sometime before Ma...

    Election

    When Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Both asserted afterwards that Conrad had, in full possession of his mental powers, handed the royal insignia to Frederick and indicated that Frederick, rather than Conrad's own six-year-old son, the future Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, succeed him as king. Frederick energetically pursued the crown and at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 the kingdom's princely electorsdesignated him as the next Ge...

    The increase in wealth of the trading cities of northern Italy led to a revival in the study of the Justinian Code, a Latin legal system that had become extinct centuries earlier. Legal scholars renewed its application. It is speculated that Pope Gregory VII personally encouraged the Justinian rule of law and had a copy of it. The historian Norman Cantor described Corpus Iuris Civilis (Justinian Body of Civil Law) as "the greatest legal code ever devised". It envisaged the law of the state as a reflection of natural moral law (as seen by the men of the Justinian system), the principle of rationality in the universe. By the time Frederick assumed the throne, this legal system was well established on both sides of the Alps. He was the first to utilize the availability of the new professional class of lawyers. The Civil Law allowed Frederick to use these lawyers to administer his kingdom in a logical and consistent manner. It also provided a framework to legitimize his claim to the rig...

    Frederick did little to encourage economic development in Germany prior to the autumn of 1165. In that year he visited the lower Rhineland, the most economically advanced region in Germany. He had already travelled to northern Italy, the most economically advanced region in the Empire, three times. From 1165 on, Frederick pursued economic policies to encourage growth and trade. There is no question that his reign was a period of major economic growth in Germany, but it is impossible now to determine how much of that growth was owed to Frederick's policies. The number of mints in Germany increased ninefold in the reign of Frederick and his son Henry, from about two dozen mints at the start of his reign to 215 mints in 1197 and from a mere two[d] royal mints to 28. Frederick himself established at least twelve royal mints, including those of Aachen, Donauwörth, Ulm, Haguenau, Duisberg, Kaiserswerth, Frankfurt, Gelnhausen and Dortmund. He also granted privileges exempting the merchants...

    Otto of Freising, Frederick's uncle, wrote an account of his reign entitled Gesta Friderici I imperatoris (Deeds of the Emperor Frederick), which is considered to be an accurate history of the king. Otto's other major work, the Chronica sive Historia de duabus civitatibus (Chronicle or History of the Two Cities) had been an exposition of the Civitas Dei (The City of God) of St. Augustine of Hippo, full of Augustinian negativity concerning the nature of the world and history. His work on Frederick is of opposite tone, being an optimistic portrayal of the glorious potentials of imperial authority. Otto died after finishing the first two books, leaving the last two to Rahewin, his provost. Rahewin's text is in places heavily dependent on classical precedent. For example, Rahewin's physical description of Frederick reproduces word-for-word (except for details of hair and beard) a description of another monarch, Theodoric IIwritten nearly eight hundred years earlier by Sidonius Apollinar...

    Frederick is the subject of many legends, including that of a sleeping hero, like the much older British Celtic legends of Arthur or Bran the Blessed. Legend says he is not dead, but asleep with his knights in a cave in the Kyffhäuser mountains in Thuringia or Mount Untersberg at the border between Bavaria, Germany, and Salzburg, Austria, and that when the ravens cease to fly around the mountain he will awake and restore Germany to its ancient greatness. According to the story, his red beard has grown through the table at which he sits. His eyes are half closed in sleep, but now and then he raises his hand and sends a boy out to see if the ravens have stopped flying. A similar story, set in Sicily, was earlier attested about his grandson, Frederick II. To garner political support the German Empire built atop the Kyffhäuser the Kyffhäuser Monument, which declared Kaiser Wilhelm Ithe reincarnation of Frederick; the 1896 dedication occurred on 18 June, the day of Frederick's coronation...

    Frederick's first marriage, to Adelheid of Vohburg, did not produce any children and was annulled. From his second marriage, to Beatrice of Burgundy,he had the following children: 1. Beatrice (end 1162/early 1163 – at least early 1174/1179). King William II of Sicilyfirst asked for her hand but the marriage negotiations never came through. She married Guillaume (II) count of Chalon in 1173 and was mother to Beatrix, countess of Chalon. 2. Frederick V, Duke of Swabia(Pavia, 16 July 1164 – 28 November 1170). 3. Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor(Nijmegen, November 1165 – Messina, 28 September 1197). 4. Conrad (Modigliana, February 1167 – Acre, 20 January 1191), later renamed Frederick VI, Duke of Swabiaafter the death of his older brother. 5. Daughter (Gisela?) (October/November 1168 – end 1184). She was betrothed to Richard, Count of Poitou(later King of England) but died before they could be married. 6. Otto I, Count of Burgundy(June/July 1170 – killed, Besançon, 13 January 1200). 7. Conr...

    In Victor Hugo's romantic play Les Burgraves (1843), Frederick (as character Frédéric de Hohenstaufen) returns many years after he was presumed dead, as expected by some medieval legends.[citation...
    The Crusades (1935), Frederick, portrayed by Hobart Bosworth, was shown attending a meeting of crusaders with Saladin prior to siege of Acre.
    Land of Unreason (1941), by L. Sprague de Camp and Fletcher Pratt, mentions the castle of the Kyffhäuser.
    Operation Barbarossa, the codename of the German invasion of the Soviet Unionin 1941.

    Sources

    Primary sources Secondary sources

    MSN Encarta – Frederick I (Holy Roman Empire) (Archived2009-10-31)
    Charter given by Emperor Frederick for the bishopric of Bamberg showing the Emperor's seal, 6 April 1157 . Taken from the collections of the Lichtbildarchiv älterer Originalurkunden at Marburg Univ...
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